model of humanitarian innovation: a fatal flaw which has hobbled it from the beginning and will continue to hobble it in future. Innovations are often presented as ‘game-changing’, but most innovations do not change the rules of the game; they only give a competitive advantage within the existing rules, which are shaped over long periods of time and are very rarely overturned by a single discovery. Innovations which do change the rules of the game – such as double-entry bookkeeping or the printing press – are

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs

War, Insurgency ’, London Review of Books , 29 : 5 , 5 – 8 . McIntyre , L. ( 2018 ), Post-Truth ( Cambridge, MA : MIT Press ). Mill , J. S. ( 1859 ), On Liberty ( London : Penguin Classics , 1974 ). Milton , J. ( 1644 ), Areopagitica: A Speech of Mr. John Milton for the Liberty of Unlicenc’d Printing, to the Parlament of England ( London ). Mourão , R. , Thorson , E. , Chen , M. and Tham , S. ( 2018 ), ‘ Media Repertoires and News Trust during the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Two contemporary accounts of Martin Luther

This book presents a contemporary, eyewitness account of the life of Martin Luther translated into English. Johannes Cochlaeus (1479–1552) was present in the great hall at the Diet of Worms on April 18, 1521 when Luther made his famous declaration before Emperor Charles V: ‘Here I stand. I can do no other. God help me. Amen’. Afterward, Cochlaeus sought Luther out, met him at his inn, and privately debated with him. Luther wrote of Cochlaeus, ‘may God long preserve this most pious man, born to guard and teach the Gospel of His church, together with His word, Amen’. However, the confrontation left Cochlaeus convinced that Luther was an impious and malevolent man. Over the next twnety-five years, Cochlaeus barely escaped the Peasant's War with his life. He debated with Melanchthon and the reformers of Augsburg. It was Cochlaeus who conducted the authorities to the clandestine printing press in Cologne, where William Tyndale was preparing the first English translation of the New Testament (1525). For an eyewitness account of the Reformation—and the beginnings of the Catholic Counter-Reformation—no other historical document matches the first-hand experience of Cochlaeus. After Luther's death, it was rumoured that demons seized the reformer on his death-bed and dragged him off to Hell. In response to these rumours, Luther's friend and colleague Philip Melanchthon wrote and published a brief encomium of the reformer in 1548. Cochlaeus consequently completed and published his monumental life of Luther in 1549.

Open Access (free)

‘caused’ (in the sense of providing the necessary and sufficient conditions for) most significant political changes, though the direction of these developments was neither invariably clear nor unambiguously progressive. The advent of papyrus, for example, had a democratizing effect on knowledge in ancient Egypt by spreading information afar and beyond a priestly class. Much later, a further technological advance, the printing press, became (Innis here quotes G. M. Trevelyan) ‘a battering-ram to bring abbeys and castles crashing to the ground’. Innis’s work was filled

in The spoken word
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Geoffrey Chaucer’s Troilus and Criseyde and John Lydgate’s Troy Book

the spectre of his or his work’s flaws in order to elicit a kinder reception by readers.2 It is a trope used by two of the three most influential poets of late-medieval England, Geoffrey Chaucer and his successor John Lydgate, and is turned to repeatedly by the merchant and translator who first introduced the printing press to England, William Caxton. In the hands of all three, and in its use by scores of other writers from the late fourteenth to the early sixteenth centuries, the topos accomplishes work that extends beyond the performance of humility and its

in Participatory reading in late-medieval England
Framing excess in a Swedish newspaper group

5 Just like any other business or a special case? Framing excess in a Swedish newspaper group Elena Raviola Few have missed the fact that the daily press is in crisis. Honestly, there has been so much nagging about it in the daily press that many readers have ended their subscriptions just to avoid reading more complaints about it. (Aagård, 2015: 5)1 Dramatic headlines about the more or less imminent death of the traditional daily press have, in fact, filled pages of newspapers, magazines, and even scientific journals. Since Philip Meyer (2004) predicted in The

in Overwhelmed by overflows?
The Show from street to print

. 251). The Huntington Library copy is identical to the copy in the BL in every respect. Shows which demonstrate fewer and more minor press corrections between different copies include The triumphs of health and prosperity and Londons ius honorarium. See Greg, Bibliography, vol. II, p. 531. This woodcut appears to have been reused for Taylor’s Heauens blessing, and earths ioy of 1613. Bergeron has identified ‘a number of manifest errors’ in Okes’s printing of Londons ius honorarium (‘Heywood’s “Londons Ius Honorarium”’, pp. 225–6). There is a reference to ‘faults

in Pageantry and power
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Regina Maria Roche, the Minerva Press, and the bibliographic spread of Irish gothic fiction

be so throughout the nineteenth century. 41 So notable was the circulation and appeal of Roche's novels that, as the New England Weekly Review observed in 1828, they could be found ‘in the hands of every novel reader in Europe and America’. 42 The global impact of Roche's novels relied principally on Lane's transcontinental and transatlantic connections. A key figure in the growth of a transnational literary marketplace, Lane vitally enabled the spread of the circulating library network in England while also feeding printing presses across

in The gothic novel in Ireland, c. 1760–1829
American colonial and missionary nurses in Puerto Rico, 1900–30

Alabama Press, 2003), pp. 95–105. 10 H. K. Carroll, ‘Missionary problems of our new possessions’, in Report of the Meeting of the Conference of Foreign Missions Boards in Canada and in the United States January 16–18, 1901 (New York, 1901), p. 123. 11 C. H.  Allen, First Annual Report of Charles H.  Allen, Governor of Porto Rico, covering the period from May 1, 1900, to May 1, 1901 (Washington, DC:  Government Printing Office, 1901), p.  55 (LexisNexis US Serial Set Digital Collection). 12 Formal nursing education began in the US in the 1870s. By 1880, there were 157

in Colonial caring

laborious process fraught with difficulties. Errors were all too common when printers were unfamiliar with the Welsh alphabet and language. However, with the lapsing of the Licensing Act after 1695, presses were soon to be established in Shrewsbury, which was much more convenient for both 72 Language, literacy and aspects of identity in early modern Wales authors and purchasers within Wales. The first printing press in Wales itself was set up by Isaac Carter at Trefhedyn near Newcastle Emlyn in 1718. Other presses were soon established in market towns, including Swansea

in The spoken word