, which may describe the horrendous conditions in which the hostages are being
held and the payment of ransom to criminal and political networks ( Callimachi, 2014a , 2014b ; Kiser,
2013 ). In the end, vital information about the abductions remains the
monopoly of the political and criminal networks carrying them out, the
aid-organisation crisis units handling them, the private security firms advising
them and the intelligence services observing them. Keeping the public and aid workers
If the captors took women in order to hold them for ransom, it is clear that
they would have been protected from assault, in which case the woman may
return to her husband. But if the captors were interested in murdering and
despoiling, then it is suspected that the woman may have offered herself to
them in order to remain alive. In that case, the issue at hand is whether or
not she can return to her husband after her release from captivity. During
this period of captivity, one who was forced to convert was presumed to
be a captive of the first kind; hence, most of
cuttings, pamphlets, leaflets and letters mainly relating to the movement
for women’s suffrage in England, formed and annotated by M. Arncliffe
Sennett’, Vol. 25, No. 96, British Library, C.121.g.1 (cited in Hirshfield, 1985:
140). See also Naomi Paxton’s chapter in this volume.
20 A contemporary reading of both productions and their effects can be found
in Huntly (1912).
21 Claude McKay, ‘How Oscar Asche Spent a Fortune’, Sun-Herald [Sydney], 19
22 Unidentified press cutting, Kismet production file, Harry Ransom Humanities
Research Center, University of
The Chatham ministry I (1766–1767)
accept a French proposal to link the two Anglo-Spanish disputes over
the Manila Ransom and the Falkland Islands. That policy was agreed
at a cabinet meeting of 15 November 1766, Egmont having already
resigned over this and other issues. Southern Secretary Shelburne pursued the idea throughout 1767, for payment of the Manila Ransom
would bring, he thought, enough diplomatic prestige to outweigh any
concession over Port Egmont. But no firm financial offer was made by
market of violence is a ﬁeld of activity which is mainly
characterised by economic aims, in which both robbery and barter and the
related activities of collection of ransoms, protection money, road tolls, etc.
feature. Each actor has a number of basic options ranging from theft to trade.
The generals, princes, militia chiefs and party leaders who lead the troops in
such conﬂicts are known in the research as ‘warlords’. This term is used without
any acknowledgement of its connotations with respect to the civil or criminal legal
status of these persons. Warlords are
speak of a maﬁa, discussion is none the less eminently necessary. The signs are
in the multi-criminal activity. The Albanian villains traﬃc in drugs, illegal
migrants, arms, stolen vehicles, contraband cigarettes and alcohol. They devote
themselves to pimping and burglary on a grand scale, kidnapping for ransom,
contract killings, audio and video pirating, falsifying oﬃcial documents (visas,
etc.) and laundering criminal money.
The impressive capacity to conduct highly complex transnational operations
The secret mass transfer of migrants from the Albanian
’. See Enrique Pardo, ‘The theatres of
boredom and depression: two gateways to imagination’, Spring 1988
33 Held at The Harry Ransom Center, University of Texas.
34 University of Reading, MS 3458.
35 This is in fact a smudged blot, trailing elegantly behind him and
ending in Beckett’s inky fingerprint.
36 See Anton Ehrenzweig, The Hidden Order of Art (Berkeley: University
of California Press, 1967).
37 See Donald Woods Winnicott, Playing and Reality (London: Tavistock,
38 Samuel Beckett, Proust and Three Dialogues (London: Calder, 1965;
of Rothenburg in prison. But the latter ordered
his fellow Jews not to pay an excessive amount for his release, but only a
relatively small amount of money. As a result he remained imprisoned for
seven years, until he died in prison. In the end, a certain Jew ransomed
his body for an enormous sum, asking only that after his own death he be
buried near R. Meir ben Baruch of Rothenburg. To this day it is possible to
see the double graves, adjacent to one another, at the entrance to the ancient
Jewish cemetery in Worms. The story is recorded on the gravestones for
of an unpublished sketch of his time in Britain); Nancy Cunard
Collection, Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center, University of
Texas at Austin. McKay to Ogden, 2 April 1920.
McKay to Ogden, 25 February 1920.
McKay to Ogden, 2 April 1920
favoured nation status’ for Britain: but the instructions had
come from Sandwich during Grenville’s ministry, and the Rockingham cabinet played little part in the final outcome.14
Grenville’s ‘gunboat diplomacy’ obviated earlier criticism of weakness towards the Bourbon Powers, but there was one matter over which
his ministry could be attacked, failure to press the so-called Manila Ransom issue with Spain. There was a strong British case to claim payment
of the sum agreed upon at the capture of the Philippines capital to
prevent looting of that city. But a belligerent