‘imperialist age’ (1840–1914), this
number increased due to the independence of American states, and at the end of the Second World
War the UN Charter was signed by 50 independent states. It was in the second half of the twentieth century that the inter-state system expanded more
rapidly. Today there are almost 200 sovereign states with a seat at the UN. Decolonisation and
the independence of African and Asian states contributed to this expansion. And of particular
importance was China’s transformation of its ancient civilisation and empire into a nation
by the neoliberalism of the conservative counter-revolution, this social protection has largely
evaporated. Insurance- and company-based social protection has historically been limited or absent in the
global South. Late-modern precarity begins here first ( Munck, 2013 ). Encouraged by the imposition of structural adjustment, the South’s
informal economies began to rapidly expand from the end the 1970s, absorbing the surplus
population thrown off as public-sector employment and services contracted ( Cornia, 1987 ). Moving to catch up, so to
This book provides an account of the University of Manchester's struggle to meet the government's demands for the rapid expansion of higher education in the 1950s and the 1960s. It looks at the University's ambitious building programme: the controversial attempts to reform its constitution and improve its communications amid demands for greater democracy in the workplace, the struggle to retain its old pre-eminence in a competitive world where new ‘green field’ universities were rivalling older civic institutions. The book tells the story, not just from the point of view of administrators and academics, but also from those of students and support staff (such as secretaries, technicians and engineers). It not only uses official records, but also student newspapers, political pamphlets and reminiscences collected through interviews.
The interest in aesthetics in philosophy, literary and cultural studies is growing rapidly. This book contains exemplary essays by key practitioners in these fields which demonstrate the importance of this area of enquiry. New aestheticism remains a troubled term and in current parlance it already comes loaded with the baggage of the 'philistine controversy' which first emerged in an exchange that originally that took place in the New Left Review during the mid-1990s. A serious aesthetic education is necessary for resisting the advance of 'philistinism'. Contemporary aesthetic production may be decentred and belonging to the past, but that is not a reason to underestimate what great works do that nothing else can. Despite well-established feminist work in literary criticism, film theory and art history, feminist aesthetics 'is a relatively young discipline, dating from the early 1990s'. The book focuses on the critical interrogation of the historical status of mimesis in the context of a gendered and racial politics of modernity. Throughout the history of literary and art criticism the focus has fallen on the creation or reception of works and texts. The book also identifies a fragmentary Romantic residue in contemporary aesthetics. The Alexandrian aesthetic underlies the experience of the 'allegorical'. 'Cultural poetics' makes clear the expansion of 'poetics' into a domain that is no longer strictly associated with 'poetry'. The book also presents an account of a Kantian aesthetic criticism, discussing Critique of Pure Reason, Critique of Aesthetic Judgement and Critique of Judgement.
rising investment, which recovered during the second half of
the 1990s (see Table 2.4, below).
The indigenous economy: following the European path?
Has the rapid growth of the foreign sector spun off into indigenous
sectors? Some experts have argued that the 1990s were different from
earlier periods because TNC activities encouraged a greater expansion
of indigenous companies. O’Malley11 argued that a dynamic indigenous
manufacturing sector grew alongside the foreign sector. Others contend
that the TNC investments of the 1990s were more strongly linked to
transfer’, which ran up against the embeddedness of
traditional authority, especially as represented by the chiefs,
who symbolized local particularities and the communal
values of tribal life. Indeed, modernization was viewed by
political scientists and nationalists alike as above all Africa’s
transition away from an inhibiting tribalism towards a
modern nationhood which, buoyed up by rapid economic
development, would represent sovereign if not actual equality with the former imperial powers.
If the process of ‘nation-building’ or ‘national integration’
was the primary
high level of investments necessary for
The Asian ﬁnancial crisis
rapid growth. Second, there was the appreciation of the yen vis-à-vis the
weakening US dollar after the 1985 Plaza Accord, during which time the
baht was effectively pegged to the dollar at a rate of roughly 25 baht per US
dollar.14 Third, as Japan, South Korea, Hong Kong and Taiwan faced sharply
rising labor costs and protectionist barriers, this increased the cost advantage of exports from Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia. Fourth, and most
importantly, export expansion was fueled by massive
British Isles and beyond. Consequently, British industry was
able to exploit distant markets, as well as draw labour from further afield easier
than ever before.
In addition, mining was a magnet to industry, enticing many industrialists
whose businesses depended on huge quantities of coal to locate their enterprises in the coalfields.35 The sinking of new pits led to the rapidexpansion
of new communities and an influx of people from far and wide. As an article
in the Penny Magazine (1835) put it: ‘[i]f a new colliery is opened in a part of
the country where such work
ninety-month expansion labelled the ‘Massachusetts’ Miracle’, the Commonwealth lost one-third of its manufacturing jobs between 1985 and 1992.
The country’s first high-tech region had seemingly lost industrial leadership
much more quickly in the new industries of the late twentieth century than
in industries first established in Massachusetts in the nineteenth century.
The simultaneous collapse of the minicomputer and defence industry, with
the end of the Cold War, touched off a downturn which, added to the longterm contraction of traditional industries
digestion and internal preoccupation. Too rapid an expansion
risks making the whole system ungovernable. Still, the EU has tested and
resilient institutions; its leading countries retain a strong geopolitical
consciousness. It should not surprise anybody if, in our new century, Europe
is once more a major force in Eurasia and around the world – a major global
China, too, has a new hand. Since 1978, its growth has been very rapid. Its
GDP is already the second in the world; its per capita income