‘imperialist age’ (1840–1914), this
number increased due to the independence of American states, and at the end of the Second World
War the UN Charter was signed by 50 independent states. It was in the second half of the twentieth century that the inter-state system expanded more
rapidly. Today there are almost 200 sovereign states with a seat at the UN. Decolonisation and
the independence of African and Asian states contributed to this expansion. And of particular
importance was China’s transformation of its ancient civilisation and empire into a nation
more broadly ( Heerten, 2017 ). In
addition, seemingly altruistic technological interventions in humanitarian contexts
often go alongside the expansion of state or military power and new mechanisms of
surveillance and control ( Jacobsen, 2015 ).
More generally, as long as major technological innovations are largely driven or
developed by the Global North, they are bound to perpetuate existing global
inequalities, as evident, for example, in the field of digital humanitarianism ( Roth and Luczak
by the neoliberalism of the conservative counter-revolution, this social protection has largely
evaporated. Insurance- and company-based social protection has historically been limited or absent in the
global South. Late-modern precarity begins here first ( Munck, 2013 ). Encouraged by the imposition of structural adjustment, the South’s
informal economies began to rapidly expand from the end the 1970s, absorbing the surplus
population thrown off as public-sector employment and services contracted ( Cornia, 1987 ). Moving to catch up, so to
Four Decisive Challenges Confronting Humanitarian Innovation
Gerard Finnigan and Otto Farkas
urban slums, and in Dhaka the proportion of people living in slums
is 40 per cent of the total urban population ( BBS, 2014 ; UNDESA, 2014 ).
Across Africa, the demographic pressure created by the urban shift has been linked
to instability and increasing conflict and inter-communal violence ( Fortune et al. , 2015 ;
Raleigh, 2015 ). This rapid population
expansion both increases pressure on existing local resources and the demand for
assistance in the event of
This book provides an account of the University of Manchester's struggle to meet the government's demands for the rapid expansion of higher education in the 1950s and the 1960s. It looks at the University's ambitious building programme: the controversial attempts to reform its constitution and improve its communications amid demands for greater democracy in the workplace, the struggle to retain its old pre-eminence in a competitive world where new ‘green field’ universities were rivalling older civic institutions. The book tells the story, not just from the point of view of administrators and academics, but also from those of students and support staff (such as secretaries, technicians and engineers). It not only uses official records, but also student newspapers, political pamphlets and reminiscences collected through interviews.
The interest in aesthetics in philosophy, literary and cultural studies is growing rapidly. This book contains exemplary essays by key practitioners in these fields which demonstrate the importance of this area of enquiry. New aestheticism remains a troubled term and in current parlance it already comes loaded with the baggage of the 'philistine controversy' which first emerged in an exchange that originally that took place in the New Left Review during the mid-1990s. A serious aesthetic education is necessary for resisting the advance of 'philistinism'. Contemporary aesthetic production may be decentred and belonging to the past, but that is not a reason to underestimate what great works do that nothing else can. Despite well-established feminist work in literary criticism, film theory and art history, feminist aesthetics 'is a relatively young discipline, dating from the early 1990s'. The book focuses on the critical interrogation of the historical status of mimesis in the context of a gendered and racial politics of modernity. Throughout the history of literary and art criticism the focus has fallen on the creation or reception of works and texts. The book also identifies a fragmentary Romantic residue in contemporary aesthetics. The Alexandrian aesthetic underlies the experience of the 'allegorical'. 'Cultural poetics' makes clear the expansion of 'poetics' into a domain that is no longer strictly associated with 'poetry'. The book also presents an account of a Kantian aesthetic criticism, discussing Critique of Pure Reason, Critique of Aesthetic Judgement and Critique of Judgement.
In May 1958, and four years into the Algerian War of Independence, a revolt again appropriated the revolutionary and republican symbolism of the French Revolution by seizing power through a Committee of Public Safety. This book explores why a repressive colonial system that had for over a century maintained the material and intellectual backwardness of Algerian women now turned to an extensive programme of 'emancipation'. After a brief background sketch of the situation of Algerian women during the post-war decade, it discusses the various factors contributed to the emergence of the first significant women's organisations in the main urban centres. It was only after the outbreak of the rebellion in 1954 and the arrival of many hundreds of wives of army officers that the model of female interventionism became dramatically activated. The French military intervention in Algeria during 1954-1962 derived its force from the Orientalist current in European colonialism and also seemed to foreshadow the revival of global Islamophobia after 1979 and the eventual moves to 'liberate' Muslim societies by US-led neo-imperialism in Afghanistan and Iraq. For the women of Bordj Okhriss, as throughout Algeria, the French army represented a dangerous and powerful force associated with mass destruction, brutality and rape. The central contradiction facing the mobile socio-medical teams teams was how to gain the trust of Algerian women and to bring them social progress and emancipation when they themselves were part of an army that had destroyed their villages and driven them into refugee camps.
rising investment, which recovered during the second half of
the 1990s (see Table 2.4, below).
The indigenous economy: following the European path?
Has the rapid growth of the foreign sector spun off into indigenous
sectors? Some experts have argued that the 1990s were different from
earlier periods because TNC activities encouraged a greater expansion
of indigenous companies. O’Malley11 argued that a dynamic indigenous
manufacturing sector grew alongside the foreign sector. Others contend
that the TNC investments of the 1990s were more strongly linked to
transfer’, which ran up against the embeddedness of
traditional authority, especially as represented by the chiefs,
who symbolized local particularities and the communal
values of tribal life. Indeed, modernization was viewed by
political scientists and nationalists alike as above all Africa’s
transition away from an inhibiting tribalism towards a
modern nationhood which, buoyed up by rapid economic
development, would represent sovereign if not actual equality with the former imperial powers.
If the process of ‘nation-building’ or ‘national integration’
was the primary
high level of investments necessary for
The Asian ﬁnancial crisis
rapid growth. Second, there was the appreciation of the yen vis-à-vis the
weakening US dollar after the 1985 Plaza Accord, during which time the
baht was effectively pegged to the dollar at a rate of roughly 25 baht per US
dollar.14 Third, as Japan, South Korea, Hong Kong and Taiwan faced sharply
rising labor costs and protectionist barriers, this increased the cost advantage of exports from Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia. Fourth, and most
importantly, export expansion was fueled by massive