‘imperialist age’ (1840–1914), this number increased due to the independence of American states, and at the end of the Second World War the UN Charter was signed by 50 independent states. It was in the second half of the twentieth century that the inter-state system expanded more rapidly. Today there are almost 200 sovereign states with a seat at the UN. Decolonisation and the independence of African and Asian states contributed to this expansion. And of particular importance was China’s transformation of its ancient civilisation and empire into a nation

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
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Governing Precarity through Adaptive Design

, driven by the neoliberalism of the conservative counter-revolution, this social protection has largely evaporated. Insurance- and company-based social protection has historically been limited or absent in the global South. Late-modern precarity begins here first ( Munck, 2013 ). Encouraged by the imposition of structural adjustment, the South’s informal economies began to rapidly expand from the end the 1970s, absorbing the surplus population thrown off as public-sector employment and services contracted ( Cornia, 1987 ). Moving to catch up, so to

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs

This book provides an account of the University of Manchester's struggle to meet the government's demands for the rapid expansion of higher education in the 1950s and the 1960s. It looks at the University's ambitious building programme: the controversial attempts to reform its constitution and improve its communications amid demands for greater democracy in the workplace, the struggle to retain its old pre-eminence in a competitive world where new ‘green field’ universities were rivalling older civic institutions. The book tells the story, not just from the point of view of administrators and academics, but also from those of students and support staff (such as secretaries, technicians and engineers). It not only uses official records, but also student newspapers, political pamphlets and reminiscences collected through interviews.

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The interest in aesthetics in philosophy, literary and cultural studies is growing rapidly. This book contains exemplary essays by key practitioners in these fields which demonstrate the importance of this area of enquiry. New aestheticism remains a troubled term and in current parlance it already comes loaded with the baggage of the 'philistine controversy' which first emerged in an exchange that originally that took place in the New Left Review during the mid-1990s. A serious aesthetic education is necessary for resisting the advance of 'philistinism'. Contemporary aesthetic production may be decentred and belonging to the past, but that is not a reason to underestimate what great works do that nothing else can. Despite well-established feminist work in literary criticism, film theory and art history, feminist aesthetics 'is a relatively young discipline, dating from the early 1990s'. The book focuses on the critical interrogation of the historical status of mimesis in the context of a gendered and racial politics of modernity. Throughout the history of literary and art criticism the focus has fallen on the creation or reception of works and texts. The book also identifies a fragmentary Romantic residue in contemporary aesthetics. The Alexandrian aesthetic underlies the experience of the 'allegorical'. 'Cultural poetics' makes clear the expansion of 'poetics' into a domain that is no longer strictly associated with 'poetry'. The book also presents an account of a Kantian aesthetic criticism, discussing Critique of Pure Reason, Critique of Aesthetic Judgement and Critique of Judgement.

A critical reassessment

rising investment, which recovered during the second half of the 1990s (see Table 2.4, below). The indigenous economy: following the European path? Has the rapid growth of the foreign sector spun off into indigenous sectors? Some experts have argued that the 1990s were different from earlier periods because TNC activities encouraged a greater expansion of indigenous companies. O’Malley11 argued that a dynamic indigenous manufacturing sector grew alongside the foreign sector. Others contend that the TNC investments of the 1990s were more strongly linked to indigenous

in The end of Irish history?
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transfer’, which ran up against the embeddedness of traditional authority, especially as represented by the chiefs, who symbolized local particularities and the communal values of tribal life. Indeed, modernization was viewed by political scientists and nationalists alike as above all Africa’s transition away from an inhibiting tribalism towards a modern nationhood which, buoyed up by rapid economic development, would represent sovereign if not actual equality with the former imperial powers. If the process of ‘nation-building’ or ‘national integration’ was the primary

in Democratization through the looking-glass
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Crisis, reform and recovery

high level of investments necessary for 71 The Asian financial crisis rapid growth. Second, there was the appreciation of the yen vis-à-vis the weakening US dollar after the 1985 Plaza Accord, during which time the baht was effectively pegged to the dollar at a rate of roughly 25 baht per US dollar.14 Third, as Japan, South Korea, Hong Kong and Taiwan faced sharply rising labor costs and protectionist barriers, this increased the cost advantage of exports from Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia. Fourth, and most importantly, export expansion was fueled by massive

in The Asian financial crisis
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British Isles and beyond. Consequently, British industry was able to exploit distant markets, as well as draw labour from further afield easier than ever before. In addition, mining was a magnet to industry, enticing many industrialists whose businesses depended on huge quantities of coal to locate their enterprises in the coalfields.35 The sinking of new pits led to the rapid expansion of new communities and an influx of people from far and wide. As an article in the Penny Magazine (1835) put it: ‘[i]f a new colliery is opened in a part of the country where such work

in Disability in the Industrial Revolution
The resurgence of Route 128 in Massachusetts

enjoying a ninety-month expansion labelled the ‘Massachusetts’ Miracle’, the Commonwealth lost one-third of its manufacturing jobs between 1985 and 1992. The country’s first high-tech region had seemingly lost industrial leadership much more quickly in the new industries of the late twentieth century than in industries first established in Massachusetts in the nineteenth century. The simultaneous collapse of the minicomputer and defence industry, with the end of the Cold War, touched off a downturn which, added to the longterm contraction of traditional industries

in Market relations and the competitive process

digestion and internal preoccupation. Too rapid an expansion risks making the whole system ungovernable. Still, the EU has tested and resilient institutions; its leading countries retain a strong geopolitical consciousness. It should not surprise anybody if, in our new century, Europe is once more a major force in Eurasia and around the world – a major global power. 249 2504Chap13 7/4/03 12:42 pm Page 250 Conclusion China unbound China, too, has a new hand. Since 1978, its growth has been very rapid. Its GDP is already the second in the world; its per capita income

in Limiting institutions?