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Open Access (free)
Digital Bodies, Data and Gifts
Kristin Bergtora Sandvik

effectiveness’ ( Redfield, 2012 ) and how the sector should relate to a developing global regulatory framework that is accompanied by an evolving global ‘techno-legal consciousness’ ( Sandvik, 2018 ), where data protection and privacy are seen as basic rights ( Hosein and Nyst, 2013 ). My objective is to interrogate the ambiguous position of digital humanitarian goods developed at the interface of the affordances of emergency response contexts, the accelerating digitisation of beneficiary bodies

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
A Crisis of Value
Author: Oonagh McDonald

This book explains the fundamental causes of the bank's failure, including the inadequacy of the regulatory and supervisory framework. For some, it was the repeal of the Glass-Steagall Act that was the overriding cause, not just of the collapse of Lehman Brothers, but of the financial crisis as a whole. The book argues that the cause is partly to be found both in weak and ineffective regulation and also in a programme of regulation and supervision that was simply not fit for the purpose. Lehman Brothers' long history began with three brothers, immigrants from Germany, who sold selling groceries and dry goods to local cotton farmers. Dick Fuld, the chairman and CEO, and his senior management, ignored the increased risks, choosing to rely on over-valuations of the firm's assets. The book examines the regulation of the Big Five investment banks in the context of the changes which took place in the structure of banking after the repeal of the Glass-Steagall Act. It describes the introduction of the European Union's Consolidated Supervision Directive in 2004. The book examines the whole issue of valuing Lehman's assets and details the regulations covering appraisals and valuations of real estate, applicable at the time and to consider Lehman's approach in the light of these regulations. It argues that that the valuation of Lehman's real estate assets was problematic to say the least, as the regulators did not require the investment banks to adopt a recognized methodology of valuation, and that Lehman's own methods were flawed.

Open Access (free)
Richard Parrish

not however derived from primary or secondary legislation but rather case law. In short, the defining characteristic of EU sports policy is the construction of a discrete area of EU sports law. EU sports law extends beyond the mere application of law to sport, to the construction of a legal approach for dealing with sports disputes which allows both the EU’s regulatory and political policy objectives for sport to co-exist within the EU sports policy framework. This research agenda is particularly fascinating because the twin concepts of EU sports law and EU sports

in Sports law and policy in the European Union
Open Access (free)
Crisis, reform and recovery
Shalendra D. Sharma

would eventually bail them out if they got into trouble, even in the absence of explicit government guarantees. As Krugman (1998) observes, when government actions suggest that there is an explicit guarantee against either bank or corporate failure, such implicit guarantees can trigger asset price inflation and make the financial system vulnerable to collapse. And, third, the failure to develop simultaneously the necessary prudential supervisory, regulatory and legal framework (and enforce what regulation did exist) made Indonesia highly susceptible to a system

in The Asian financial crisis
Author: Sara De Vido

The book explores the relationship between violence against women on one hand, and the rights to health and reproductive health on the other. It argues that violation of the right to health is a consequence of violence, and that (state) health policies might be a cause of – or create the conditions for – violence against women. It significantly contributes to feminist and international human rights legal scholarship by conceptualising a new ground-breaking idea, violence against women’s health (VAWH), using the Hippocratic paradigm as the backbone of the analysis. The two dimensions of violence at the core of the book – the horizontal, ‘interpersonal’ dimension and the vertical ‘state policies’ dimension – are investigated through around 70 decisions of domestic, regional and international judicial or quasi-judicial bodies (the anamnesis). The concept of VAWH, drawn from the anamnesis, enriches the traditional concept of violence against women with a human rights-based approach to autonomy and a reflection on the pervasiveness of patterns of discrimination (diagnosis). VAWH as theorised in the book allows the reconceptualisation of states’ obligations in an innovative way, by identifying for both dimensions obligations of result, due diligence obligations, and obligations to progressively take steps (treatment). The book eventually asks whether it is not international law itself that is the ultimate cause of VAWH (prognosis).

Open Access (free)
The Algerian war and the ‘emancipation’ of Muslim women, 1954–62
Author: Neil Macmaster

In May 1958, and four years into the Algerian War of Independence, a revolt again appropriated the revolutionary and republican symbolism of the French Revolution by seizing power through a Committee of Public Safety. This book explores why a repressive colonial system that had for over a century maintained the material and intellectual backwardness of Algerian women now turned to an extensive programme of 'emancipation'. After a brief background sketch of the situation of Algerian women during the post-war decade, it discusses the various factors contributed to the emergence of the first significant women's organisations in the main urban centres. It was only after the outbreak of the rebellion in 1954 and the arrival of many hundreds of wives of army officers that the model of female interventionism became dramatically activated. The French military intervention in Algeria during 1954-1962 derived its force from the Orientalist current in European colonialism and also seemed to foreshadow the revival of global Islamophobia after 1979 and the eventual moves to 'liberate' Muslim societies by US-led neo-imperialism in Afghanistan and Iraq. For the women of Bordj Okhriss, as throughout Algeria, the French army represented a dangerous and powerful force associated with mass destruction, brutality and rape. The central contradiction facing the mobile socio-medical teams teams was how to gain the trust of Algerian women and to bring them social progress and emancipation when they themselves were part of an army that had destroyed their villages and driven them into refugee camps.

Natasha Feiner

Prompted by this report, and increased public interest in flight safety following the air crash in Kallang, in the mid-1950s pilots’ hours of work and rest were reviewed by national agencies, and in 1957 a new regulatory framework was introduced to control pilots’ schedules. Based on a model of fatigue that had its roots in the late nineteenth century, the concept of balance was implicit in these regulations from the outset. The notion of fatigue was vague and contested throughout the twentieth century. Attempts to find a biological marker for fatigue

in Balancing the self
Open Access (free)
Diversification and the rise of fragmented time systems
Iain Campbell

of change rather than analysis of its causes and consequences. The chapter draws on reflection by numerous scholars, but it is particularly indebted to the rich vein of research from a labour market segmentation perspective (see Chapter 1), as it has been revised and reformulated in order to overcome the weaknesses of dualistic versions (Rubery, 2005a). The first section, ‘What is working-time flexibility?’, examines how flexible working-time arrangements fit within the context of the traditional regulatory system, before outlining a conceptual framework that can

in Making work more equal
Open Access (free)
Christopher T. Marsden

resources to meet the multifaceted challenge of net neutrality enforcement. Expect the smaller regulators in the Baltics, Cyprus, Malta, Luxembourg, the Visegrad Four and perhaps Ireland to be the first regulators whose very uncertain regulatory commitment to net neutrality will be tested by zero rating and/or specialised service plans. This double whammy of positive and negative discrimination appears to be

in Network neutrality
Open Access (free)
Environmental managerialism and golf’s conspicuous exemption
Brad Millington and Brian Wilson

registry (Health Canada, 2006 ). In short, and as Boyd wrote around the time this new framework was being crafted, “The new PCPA creates a modern system for the evaluation, registration, labelling, import, and export of pesticides” (Boyd, 2003 : 120). At the heart of the revised regulatory system was, and remains, the PMRA, a body situated within the wider agency Health Canada. Created in 1995, the PMRA is responsible for administering the PCPA. By way of Health Canada’s own description, the PMRA

in The greening of golf