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The Algerian war and the ‘emancipation’ of Muslim women, 1954–62
Author: Neil Macmaster

In May 1958, and four years into the Algerian War of Independence, a revolt again appropriated the revolutionary and republican symbolism of the French Revolution by seizing power through a Committee of Public Safety. This book explores why a repressive colonial system that had for over a century maintained the material and intellectual backwardness of Algerian women now turned to an extensive programme of 'emancipation'. After a brief background sketch of the situation of Algerian women during the post-war decade, it discusses the various factors contributed to the emergence of the first significant women's organisations in the main urban centres. It was only after the outbreak of the rebellion in 1954 and the arrival of many hundreds of wives of army officers that the model of female interventionism became dramatically activated. The French military intervention in Algeria during 1954-1962 derived its force from the Orientalist current in European colonialism and also seemed to foreshadow the revival of global Islamophobia after 1979 and the eventual moves to 'liberate' Muslim societies by US-led neo-imperialism in Afghanistan and Iraq. For the women of Bordj Okhriss, as throughout Algeria, the French army represented a dangerous and powerful force associated with mass destruction, brutality and rape. The central contradiction facing the mobile socio-medical teams teams was how to gain the trust of Algerian women and to bring them social progress and emancipation when they themselves were part of an army that had destroyed their villages and driven them into refugee camps.

Open Access (free)
Practices, conflicts, and impact in the sixteenth century
Philippe Rogger

alliance, they kept alive the chance of one day being paid. In this respect, one might conclude that pensions were an extremely effective instrument of power; withholding payment enabled Henri III to consolidate his position. France’s high mercenary and pension debts thus did not have the centrifugal effect one might assume because of the diplomatic tensions they caused; rather, the faltering payments played a large role in stabilizing Franco-Swiss relations in the long term. Conclusion This assessment takes us back to our initial thesis that pensions implied

in Subsidies, diplomacy, and state formation in Europe, 1494–1789
Open Access (free)
Birgit Lang, Joy Damousi and Alison Lewis

the largest debt to Döblin is Günter Grass, winner of the 1999 Nobel Prize in Literature. In interviews, Grass repeatedly invoked Döblin as a forebear. However, Grass’s literary works are less influenced by Döblin’s experiments with empirical case writing and psychoanalysis than by his realism and irony. Instead, the literary case study derived from the courts and legal settings continues to find its more conventional home in contemporary crime fiction and the detective novel. Both have become transnational genres that occupy middlebrow and popular segments of the

in A history of the case study
Jonathan Colman

3.6 to 3.8. Every time you go up a point it costs us many millions and our interest on our debt’s going to go way up … money’s going to get tighter and our prosperity’s going to dip and our tax money’s going to dip, our expenses going up … we got a real serious thing on our hands’. 34 That day Britain took a $3 billion short-term loan from, as Bruce noted in his diary, ‘European central banks, the United States, and

in A ‘special relationship’?
Open Access (free)
Paul de Rapin de Thoyras’s Histoire
Ben Dew

creation of a monopolistic trading company,47 his misguided attempt to sell fishing rights to the Dutch,48 and his decision to cancel part of the debt owed to England by the United Provinces in return for quick payment.49 For Rapin, therefore, the King prioritised his own short-term need for money over the longterm political and economic welfare of the nation. While he was deeply reliant upon the work of other historians, Rapin’s economic analysis also had a degree of originality. A central W H I G H I S T O R Y 109 theme of Wilson’s work had been the ways in which

in Commerce, finance and statecraft
S.J. Barnett

usually indicate influence. It may well be the case that Diderot had long held those opinions, formed by the experiences of his life, and this is a very different circumstance from influence. So what does ‘intellectual debt’ signify exactly? Most will agree, I feel, that this term connotes influence. Let us assume, then, that Diderot had long held the ideas expressed in the article, but upon writing the article he exemplified, sharpened and reinforced his arguments via the writings of past thinkers. If his long-held arguments also shifted a little in emphasis because of

in The Enlightenment and religion
A game of chance?
Margaret Hanly

members of Lancashire vestries or other prominent ratepayers were often the local manufacturers or merchants whose goods would be made available for sale to the vestry for this purpose.7 In practice, even the briefest survey of Lancashire poor law records reveals that parish officers faced a constant tension between thinking long-term and reacting to short-term local influences on the supply of or demand for relief. Thus the presence The economy of makeshifts and the poor law 79 of vagrants in the Lancashire market town of Garstang posed a persistent problem for the

in The poor in England 1700–1850
Open Access (free)
Steven King and Alannah Tomkins

towns or rural areas, for instance – and more widely the role of marriage and remarriage in the overall welfare package assembled by early modern families may have varied according to the prevailing causes of poverty and marginality. A further and overlapping literature that we must address is the increasingly sophisticated discussion of early modern propensities to vary household structures and to be tied into complex neighbourhood, friendship and occupational networks which could be energised when sudden and short-term or gnawing and longterm poverty overtook an

in The poor in England 1700–1850
Open Access (free)
Maureen Mulholland

civil litigation. This includes pleas of debt, trespass, slander and disputes over land heard in the manorial courts; claims of breach of faith, defamation and testamentary disputes in the Courts of the Church; and litigation between subjects in the common law courts at Westminster and on 5 Maureen Mulholland circuit. The term ‘civil litigation’ may be anachronistic, but these cases are all examples of disputes between individuals and are therefore arguably within the term. Rationality The first requirement of a fair trial analysed by Joseph Jaconelli is rationality

in Judicial tribunals in England and Europe, 1200–1700
Open Access (free)
Verbal offences on the streets of Modena
Katherine Aron-Beller

. The description of the offence on the cover of the processi varied, being bestemmia, bestemmia hereticale or ingiuria. Ingiuria, the notion that hostile speech could physically harm others, was, according to Thomas Kuehn, an ‘ambiguous’ legal term that intimated insult to ‘matters of personal honor and status’. 1 In order to understand the Inquisition’s interest in these verbal offences, and particularly in blasphemy, a wider perspective of the history of this crime is required. How did the Modenese Inquisition come to deal with a broad range of these cases and

in Jews on trial