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Bonnie Evans

child ‘maladjustment’. New models of child development built around the new autism concept would increasingly be used to present alternatives to this social model and to develop a new model of child development and the formation of relationships in children that supported new government policies aimed at correcting individual impairments rather than imposing an idealistic model

in The metamorphosis of autism
A history of child development in Britain
Author: Bonnie Evans

This book explains the current fascination with autism by linking it to a longer history of childhood development. Drawing from a staggering array of primary sources, it traces autism back to its origins in the early twentieth century and explains why the idea of autism has always been controversial and why it experienced a 'metamorphosis' in the 1960s and 1970s. The book locates changes in psychological theory in Britain in relation to larger shifts in the political and social organisation of schools, hospitals, families and childcare. It explores how government entities have dealt with the psychological category of autism. The book looks in detail at a unique children's 'psychotic clinic' set up in London at the Maudsley Hospital in the 1950s. It investigates the crisis of government that developed regarding the number of 'psychotic' children who were entering the public domain when large long-stay institutions closed. The book focuses on how changes in the organisation of education and social services for all children in 1970 gave further support to the concept of autism that was being developed in London's Social Psychiatry Research Unit. It also explores how new techniques were developed to measure 'social impairment' in children in light of the Seebohm reforms of 1968 and other legal changes of the early 1970s. Finally, the book argues that epidemiological research on autism in the 1960s and 1970s pioneered at London's Institute of Psychiatry has come to define global attempts to analyse and understand what, exactly, autism is.

Open Access (free)
Governing Precarity through Adaptive Design
Mark Duffield

direct action, which reached its peak in the late 1980s, humanitarian innovation sits comfortably with private partners and corporate sponsorship ( Zyck and Kent, 2014 ), a necessary recalibration given its dependence upon what can be called the computational turn – that is, since the 1990s, the seamless penetration of commercial information and communication technologies, software platforms, automating apps and screen interfaces into all aspects of personal, social, national and international life tout court . Humanitarian innovation is politically

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Matthew Hunt, Sharon O’Brien, Patrick Cadwell and Dónal P. O’Mathúna

interviews with humanitarian workers indicated that, while social media were used extensively by refugees and migrants to network with family and friends, these platforms were not their preferred channel for receiving information on their situation in Greece, and refugees and migrants expressed preferences for written documents, posters or verbal communication ( Ghandour-Demiri, 2017 ). For these reasons, language and its translation are operational challenges for humanitarian action. The

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
David M. Turner and Daniel Blackie

all to see in coal communities in the maimed bodies of survivors. While walking down a busy street in mid-century Merthyr Tydfil, the Morning Chronicle’s correspondent observed that there were ‘more men with wooden legs than are to be found in any town in the kingdom having four times its population’ – a consequence of the great ‘number of accidents in the works below and above ground resulting in amputation’.9 How were people with impairments viewed in coalfield communities; how did they regard themselves; and what social roles did they play? This chapter examines

in Disability in the Industrial Revolution
Open Access (free)
Kirsti Bohata, Alexandra Jones, Mike Mantin and Steven Thompson

impairment and disability in their post-industrial situation.1 That the coal industry impaired such large numbers of people was evident to miners, doctors, journalists, writers, social surveyors, government inspectors and commissioners, even employers at times. The large-scale disasters that took hundreds of lives at a time received most of the attention and pricked the conscience of the broader public, but it was also evident to anyone who looked that impairment and disability were common features of mining communities. For even the most casual observer of any coalmining

in Disability in industrial Britain
Open Access (free)
David M. Turner and Daniel Blackie

forms of self-help, of which the most notable was the permanent relief fund movement founded in the wake of the Hartley Colliery disaster of 1862.5 Focusing on the general (non-medical) support available to sick, injured and impaired mineworkers, and the social and cultural principles that underpinned it, this chapter explores where disabled miners and their families stood within the matrix of welfare expectations and provisions, and how this affected their ability to secure assistance in times of need. Where did responsibility for the care and support of ill and

in Disability in the Industrial Revolution
A cultural and literary history of impairment in the coal industry, 1880–1948

Coalmining was a notoriously dangerous industry and many of its workers experienced injury and disease. However, the experiences of the many disabled people within Britain’s most dangerous industry have gone largely unrecognised by historians. This book examines the British coal industry through the lens of disability, using an interdisciplinary approach to examine the lives of disabled miners and their families.

The book considers the coal industry at a time when it was one of Britain’s most important industries, and follows it through a period of growth up to the First World War, through strikes, depression and wartime, and into an era of decline. During this time, the statutory provision for disabled people changed considerably, most notably with the first programme of state compensation for workplace injury. And yet disabled people remained a constant presence in the industry as many disabled miners continued their jobs or took up ‘light work’. The burgeoning coalfields literature used images of disability on a frequent basis and disabled characters were used to represent the human toll of the industry.

A diverse range of sources are used to examine the economic, social, political and cultural impact of disability in the coal industry, looking beyond formal coal company and union records to include autobiographies, novels and oral testimony. It argues that, far from being excluded entirely from British industry, disability and disabled people were central to its development. The book will appeal to students and academics interested in disability history, disability studies, social and cultural history, and representations of disability in literature.

Physical impairment in British coalmining, 1780–1880

This book sheds new light on the human cost of industrialisation by examining the lives and experiences of those disabled in an industry that was vital to Britain's economic growth. If disability has been largely absent from conventional histories of industrialisation, the Industrial Revolution has assumed great significance in disability studies. The book examines the economic and welfare responses to disease, injury and impairment among coal workers. It discusses experiences of disability within the context of social relations and the industrial politics of coalfield communities. The book provides the context for those that follow by providing an overview of the conditions of work in British coalmining between 1780 and 1880. It turns its attention to the principal causes of disablement in the nineteenth-century coal industry and the medical responses to them. The book then extends the discussion of responses to disability by examining the welfare provisions for miners with long-term restrictive health conditions. It also examines how miners and their families negotiated a 'mixed economy' of welfare, comprising family and community support, the Poor Law, and voluntary self-help as well as employer paternalism. The book shifts attention away from medicine and welfare towards the ways in which disability affected social relations within coalfield communities. Finally, it explores the place of disability in industrial politics and how fluctuating industrial relations affected the experiences of disabled people in the coalfields.

Author: Sara De Vido

The book explores the relationship between violence against women on one hand, and the rights to health and reproductive health on the other. It argues that violation of the right to health is a consequence of violence, and that (state) health policies might be a cause of – or create the conditions for – violence against women. It significantly contributes to feminist and international human rights legal scholarship by conceptualising a new ground-breaking idea, violence against women’s health (VAWH), using the Hippocratic paradigm as the backbone of the analysis. The two dimensions of violence at the core of the book – the horizontal, ‘interpersonal’ dimension and the vertical ‘state policies’ dimension – are investigated through around 70 decisions of domestic, regional and international judicial or quasi-judicial bodies (the anamnesis). The concept of VAWH, drawn from the anamnesis, enriches the traditional concept of violence against women with a human rights-based approach to autonomy and a reflection on the pervasiveness of patterns of discrimination (diagnosis). VAWH as theorised in the book allows the reconceptualisation of states’ obligations in an innovative way, by identifying for both dimensions obligations of result, due diligence obligations, and obligations to progressively take steps (treatment). The book eventually asks whether it is not international law itself that is the ultimate cause of VAWH (prognosis).