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Bonnie Evans

child ‘maladjustment’. New models of child development built around the new autism concept would increasingly be used to present alternatives to this social model and to develop a new model of child development and the formation of relationships in children that supported new government policies aimed at correcting individual impairments rather than imposing an idealistic model

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The metamorphosis of autism

A history of child development in Britain

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Bonnie Evans

This book explains the current fascination with autism by linking it to a longer history of childhood development. Drawing from a staggering array of primary sources, it traces autism back to its origins in the early twentieth century and explains why the idea of autism has always been controversial and why it experienced a 'metamorphosis' in the 1960s and 1970s. The book locates changes in psychological theory in Britain in relation to larger shifts in the political and social organisation of schools, hospitals, families and childcare. It explores how government entities have dealt with the psychological category of autism. The book looks in detail at a unique children's 'psychotic clinic' set up in London at the Maudsley Hospital in the 1950s. It investigates the crisis of government that developed regarding the number of 'psychotic' children who were entering the public domain when large long-stay institutions closed. The book focuses on how changes in the organisation of education and social services for all children in 1970 gave further support to the concept of autism that was being developed in London's Social Psychiatry Research Unit. It also explores how new techniques were developed to measure 'social impairment' in children in light of the Seebohm reforms of 1968 and other legal changes of the early 1970s. Finally, the book argues that epidemiological research on autism in the 1960s and 1970s pioneered at London's Institute of Psychiatry has come to define global attempts to analyse and understand what, exactly, autism is.

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David M. Turner and Daniel Blackie

all to see in coal communities in the maimed bodies of survivors. While walking down a busy street in mid-century Merthyr Tydfil, the Morning Chronicle’s correspondent observed that there were ‘more men with wooden legs than are to be found in any town in the kingdom having four times its population’ – a consequence of the great ‘number of accidents in the works below and above ground resulting in amputation’.9 How were people with impairments viewed in coalfield communities; how did they regard themselves; and what social roles did they play? This chapter examines

Open Access (free)

Series:

David M. Turner and Daniel Blackie

forms of self-help, of which the most notable was the permanent relief fund movement founded in the wake of the Hartley Colliery disaster of 1862.5 Focusing on the general (non-medical) support available to sick, injured and impaired mineworkers, and the social and cultural principles that underpinned it, this chapter explores where disabled miners and their families stood within the matrix of welfare expectations and provisions, and how this affected their ability to secure assistance in times of need. Where did responsibility for the care and support of ill and

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Disability in the Industrial Revolution

Physical impairment in British coalmining, 1780–1880

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David M. Turner and Daniel Blackie

This book sheds new light on the human cost of industrialisation by examining the lives and experiences of those disabled in an industry that was vital to Britain's economic growth. If disability has been largely absent from conventional histories of industrialisation, the Industrial Revolution has assumed great significance in disability studies. The book examines the economic and welfare responses to disease, injury and impairment among coal workers. It discusses experiences of disability within the context of social relations and the industrial politics of coalfield communities. The book provides the context for those that follow by providing an overview of the conditions of work in British coalmining between 1780 and 1880. It turns its attention to the principal causes of disablement in the nineteenth-century coal industry and the medical responses to them. The book then extends the discussion of responses to disability by examining the welfare provisions for miners with long-term restrictive health conditions. It also examines how miners and their families negotiated a 'mixed economy' of welfare, comprising family and community support, the Poor Law, and voluntary self-help as well as employer paternalism. The book shifts attention away from medicine and welfare towards the ways in which disability affected social relations within coalfield communities. Finally, it explores the place of disability in industrial politics and how fluctuating industrial relations affected the experiences of disabled people in the coalfields.

Open Access (free)

Series:

David M. Turner and Daniel Blackie

that it enabled them to participate in daily life to the best of their abilities. Introduction 5 The predominantly agrarian nature of the pre-industrial economy, where production centred on the home and workers worked to task, meant that people had greater autonomy to decide their own work routines, rhythms and practices. Although impairment might prove challenging, then, the structure, requirements and expectations of pre-industrial life were flexible enough to allow permanently injured or chronically ill people to take up productive or other socially valued

Open Access (free)

Series:

David M. Turner and Daniel Blackie

who entered old age prematurely as a result of being ‘worn out’ by their labours or by the shortness of breath brought on by lung disease, matter just as much to mining’s history as those who lost their lives. Some were rendered incapable of work, either permanently or temporarily. Others ‘worked through’ chronic illness or impairment, or took up other roles within their communities. The incidence of injury and impairment in coalmining and other dangerous trades led to a range of medical, welfare and political responses, some of which have left a lasting legacy

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Bonnie Evans

1950s. The new autism psychologists wanted to define ‘social impairment’ and demand educational rights, and they did not want to be dictated to by medical agencies, or social service agencies who were constructing their own understandings of social deprivation and policy intervention. Since the 1960s, policy towards childhood autism in Britain has been almost wholly managed via the education system, with

Open Access (free)

Series:

David M. Turner and Daniel Blackie

posthumously in 1924, ‘had I seen so many crutches, so many empty jacket sleeves, so many wooden legs.’ Returning to his native Northumberland after his Murton experiences to work at Cramlington Colliery, Burt was again struck by the high frequency of ‘accidents to life and limb’ and noticed people using ‘crutches and wooden legs’ among the local population. Although these were ‘less conspicuous than at Murton’, workers with impairments were a common sight at Cramlington. Burt recorded at least one by name, a mineworker called Bob Barrass who had ‘unhappily lost an eye’ but

Open Access (free)

Series:

Bonnie Evans

the instruments used to measure it. This chapter examines this radical transformation in the meaning of autism. It examines why the shift in meaning occurred by placing it into the context of legal and political changes in Britain concerning the rights of children, and the impact of these changes on the construction of scientific studies of children. The transformation of social