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The metamorphosis of autism

A history of child development in Britain

Series:

Bonnie Evans

This book explains the current fascination with autism by linking it to a longer history of childhood development. Drawing from a staggering array of primary sources, it traces autism back to its origins in the early twentieth century and explains why the idea of autism has always been controversial and why it experienced a 'metamorphosis' in the 1960s and 1970s. The book locates changes in psychological theory in Britain in relation to larger shifts in the political and social organisation of schools, hospitals, families and childcare. It explores how government entities have dealt with the psychological category of autism. The book looks in detail at a unique children's 'psychotic clinic' set up in London at the Maudsley Hospital in the 1950s. It investigates the crisis of government that developed regarding the number of 'psychotic' children who were entering the public domain when large long-stay institutions closed. The book focuses on how changes in the organisation of education and social services for all children in 1970 gave further support to the concept of autism that was being developed in London's Social Psychiatry Research Unit. It also explores how new techniques were developed to measure 'social impairment' in children in light of the Seebohm reforms of 1968 and other legal changes of the early 1970s. Finally, the book argues that epidemiological research on autism in the 1960s and 1970s pioneered at London's Institute of Psychiatry has come to define global attempts to analyse and understand what, exactly, autism is.

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Sarah Hale, Will Leggett and Luke Martell

if it displaces values like equality. But the Third Way has also hung its social democratic credentials on its claim to promote a more equal society and save public services. There is some controversy over its promotion of social equality, however, because the Third Way also says that it is no longer concerned with the Old Left’s concern for equal outcomes and because saving public services requires private sector involvement. These two propositions go against traditional Left support of redistribution in creating more equal outcomes in society. They also challenge

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Neil McNaughton

National Health Service in 1946, however, the state guaranteed to provide The Welfare State 33 health care for all, on demand and according to need. At the same time everybody in work was required to contribute through National Insurance payments. The NHS was both universal and compulsorily funded. A small private health sector remained for those whom preferred to pay for care. We could apply a similar analysis to other services such as housing, education and social security, to illustrate the difference between the Welfare State as such and what had gone before. For

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Bonnie Evans

Authority Social Service Act, and the Education (Handicapped Children) Act 1970 were the key pieces of legislation that would begin to topple the Tavistock hegemony. These Acts helped to build new models for understanding children’s rights to relationships and new models of social welfare that challenged the ideology of organising child welfare services with the aim of preventing

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What matters is what works

The Third Way and the case of the Private Finance Initiative

Eric Shaw

contributes to a fragmentation of overall service provision and to a neglect of wider needs, formal responsibility for which lies with bodies or agencies not party to a contract. An example would be adequate provision for the elderly, which requires close collaboration between suppliers of both primary and community care, responsibility for which is divided between the NHS and local government social services departments. However, it may make financial sense for NHS commissioning bodies to make savings by off-loading responsibilities to other agencies. The effect has been

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George Campbell Gosling

, miners and transport workers. 39 Therefore the introduction of payment into the working-class experience of hospital treatment took place against a backdrop of social discord. Following the First World War there were notable tensions around the situation of returning servicemen in three areas: public services, including the hospitals; public support, especially poor law relief; and unemployment alongside the continued employment of women. The

Open Access (free)

George Campbell Gosling

health service. While this was undoubtedly a significant change in the organisation of healthcare in modern Britain, how to understand that change is open to debate. Historians and social scientists have variously understood the NHS as both a rejection and a culmination of what came before. These different narratives cast patient payment in contrasting roles. It was either an important indicator that the voluntary hospitals had effectively

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Cooperation and competition

Missions, the colonial state and constructing a health system in colonial Tanganyika

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Michael Jennings

state in providing welfare and social services that embraced education and health? This chapter argues that essential to that process was the emergence from the 1930s of a conception of a ‘mission sector’ which emerged within both missionary organisations and the colonial state, with implications for both that would last beyond the end of the colonial period in the country

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Stan Metcalfe and Alan Warde

implications for the conduct of urban life and the social and economic behaviour of households. Similarly, in regard to mass entertainment the development of radio and television has led to the emergence of a market-based system for the provision of mass entertainment services that co-exists in many countries with a state-funded service. This reflects not only developments in technology but an extension of the space where the market operates, a development that is very obvious in relation to the broadcasting of sporting activities. In the process the very notions of the

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Quality in economics

A cognitive perspective

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Gilles Allaire

consumers from a different standpoint. From the consumption point of view, if an initial problem is to access the basic knowledge necessary to use purchased things, the enduring problem is how to maintain or enhance the capabilities of those purchased objects and obtain effective and safe service from them during their lifetime, given that things have ‘social life’ (Appadurai 1986). For example, supposing a consumer already holds a driver’s licence, she will quickly learn to drive a car from the point of sale. But the major problem of car consumption today is how to