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Edited by: Stan Metcalfe and Alan Warde

There has been increasing interest and debate in recent years on the instituted nature of economic processes in general and the related ideas of the market and the competitive process in particular. This debate lies at the interface between two largely independent disciplines, economics and sociology, and reflects an attempt to bring the two fields of discourse more closely together. This book explores this interface in a number of ways, looking at the competitive process and market relations from a number of different perspectives. It considers the social role of economic institutions in society and examines the various meanings embedded in the word 'markets', as well as developing arguments on the nature of competition as an instituted economic process. The close of the twentieth century saw a virtual canonisation of markets as the best, indeed the only really effective, way to govern an economic system. The market organisation being canonised was simple and pure, along the lines of the standard textbook model in economics. The book discusses the concepts of polysemy , idealism, cognition, materiality and cultural economy. Michael Best provides an account of regional economic adaptation to changed market circumstances. This is the story of the dynamics of capitalism focused on the resurgence of the Route 128 region around Boston following its decline in the mid-1980s in the face of competition from Silicon Valley. The book also addresses the question of how this resurgence was achieved.

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Richard R. Nelson

1 On the complexities and limits of market organisation Richard R. Nelson Introduction The close of the twentieth century saw a virtual canonisation of markets as the best, indeed the only really effective, way to govern an economic system. The market organisation being canonised was simple and pure, along the lines of the standard textbook model in economics. For-profit firms are the vehicle of production and provision. Given what suppliers offer, free choice on the part of customers, who decide on the basis of their own knowledge and preferences where to spend

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The nation in social practice II

Language, education and the Catholic Church

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Alex J. Bellamy

deviation away from those books was not tolerated by the Ministry. This meant that the standard approach taken by textbooks was the only approach or opinion to which pupils were exposed. The Ministry closely regulated the content of teaching, as teachers could only use textbooks specifically authorised by the Ministry. The levels of co-ordination between ministry, publishers and authors in devising a standard approach was immense. Even the school book publishing company was owned by the state.67 The Croatian curriculum was mandatory for all schools. National minorities

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Damian Grimshaw, Colette Fagan, Gail Hebson and Isabel Tavora

gendered e­ mployment effects – Occupational sex s­ egregation, including feminised parttime work, influences the ­accompanying job design, career tracks and wage value – Jobs associated with women (‘women’s work’) are undervalued – Sex discrimination by ­employers, co-workers and customers is shaped by powerful stereotypes about motherhood – Different standards and ­gendered models of family s­ upport provision Causes of inequalities Table 1.1  (Continued) Actions on a wide set of policy agendas including ­mainstreaming gender equality into all fiscal, social and

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Martin D. Moore

nomenclature standards for different stages of diabetes, and recommended quantified thresholds for definitively ruling out and providing diagnoses. 57 The hope in fixing such criteria would be to standardise units for statistical comparison (providing a powerful conceptual and practical precedent for managing medical practice). 58 Ultimately, the WHO standards appeared to make little immediate impact upon clinical care. Textbooks continued to use discordant terminology and diagnostic criteria, and the report itself was inconsistently cited. 59 Instead

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Martin D. Moore

doctors involved in new schemes could prevent patients falling through the gaps between different sites of oversight; the second – serving as a mirror image – was how practitioners could avoid unnecessary duplication of labour. In short, how could care be co-ordinated? Furthermore, in the context of political and professional anxiety about professional competence, both specialists and GPs asked how they could ensure that surveillance and treatment would be of sufficient quality. In other words, they asked what counted as good care, and how standards could be maintained

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Pier Paolo Saviotti

. Where, however, there would be differences is about the role of qualitative change. In order to facilitate the discussion two extreme hypotheses can be introduced: first, qualitative change is an accidental by-product of economic development; second, qualitative change is an essential component of economic development. The first hypothesis is the one implicitly present in most economic growth models, where qualitative change is not denied, but it can be accepted only ex post. The second hypothesis is central to a Schumpeterian approach, in which radical innovations

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Martin D. Moore

The creation of the NSF for diabetes in the early 2000s marked the consolidation of managerial approaches to the disease and its professionals at a national level. The framework laid out clear standards for high-quality care and strategies for achieving them. The latter built upon the registers, recall systems, care protocols, guidelines, and practices of target-setting and audit – the technology of quality – through which professional bodies had sought to subject diabetes care to structure and review over the post-war period. 1 Although it

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‘Writing back’

Literary satire and Oskar Panizza’s Psichopatia criminalis (1898)

Birgit Lang

unrest. Panizza describes the narrator’s fictitious psychiatric clinic as a ‘moderately sized mental asylum built between the rivers Nekar [sic] and Rhine, the size of a palatinate and on the grounds of Rhineland-­ Palatineon, the very ground on which have flourished the most tumultuous intellects’.11 This asylum can be identified by means of geographical proximity as Illenau, the model German mental hospital founded in 1842, at which Krafft-Ebing, Schüle and Panizza’s former employer Gudden had worked. The Illenau clinic was defined by a humanitarian outlook, yet its

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Will Kymlicka and Sue Donaldson

members who are not capable of deliberative political speech. We will argue that these cases raise a fundamental challenge to our theories of democratic inclusion, not just about who is included, but also about what it means to be a citizen and how to characterize the underlying moral purposes of citizenship. To foreshadow, our argument is that these cases reveal a deep tension within democratic theory between two models of citizenship: what we