This chapter provides an overview of the limitations of dualistic thought followed by a specific exploration of the constructions of natural/social and personal/political in terms of sexuality. It explores the criticisms of identity politics, drawing on a case study of Pride Scotland. The social organisation of sexuality is a political phenomenon that must be addressed in anarchism. Anarchism should move beyond the social division of 'sexual orientation' upon which lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) politics depends. LGBT identity politics helps to maintain the illusion that heterosexuality is monolithic and unproblematic while LGBT identities are problematic and therefore political. The chapter suggests we should understand anarchism as a theory and practice that promotes the development of non-hierarchical social organisation. It concludes with a call for an anarchist, issue-based politics of sexuality.
The role of France and French interests in European development policy since 1957
The use of the expression of 'sense and sensibility' in this chapter can be understood as a reference to the construction of the European Union (EU) and as to the French behaviour towards, and its attachment to, Africa. The chapter focuses on the French impact on European Community (EC) development policy and explains how its influence evolved over time. It shows the different channels used by France to contribute to the elaboration of the European development policy. The chapter also explains the reasons for its influence. The financial influence of France on European development policy has mainly been exerted within the framework of the specific policy towards Africa and later the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries. The chapter presents recent changes and the decrease in France's presence and impact. Decolonisation implied a change in the association regime for the newly independent African countries.
Geoffrey K. Roberts and Patricia Hogwood
Contained within this section is a set of chronologies, divided into groups based on particular countries or groups of countries. As well as a general chronology for each country or group of countries, specialised chronologies of major developments are supplied, which cover, for example, the reunification of Germany and the transition to democracy in Spain.
Geoffrey K. Roberts and Patricia Hogwood
This section consists of lists of abbreviations (or short names) of political parties and other important organisations which play (or have played in the recent past) a significant political role, together with the names of those organisations.
From disaster to devolution and beyond
William Hague's four years of leadership of the Conservative Party coincided with a revolution in the political opportunity structure of Scottish Conservatism. The Scotish Tories were wiped out at the 1997 general election, their worst electoral performance of all time and their lowest share of the vote since 1865. The party's constitutional position was heavily defeated at the devolution referendum of September 1997, so that Conservative opposition to a Scottish Parliament became an anachronism and devolution was set to become a reality. The party made no great strides in terms of electoral success, but settled into the Scottish Parliament and sought to carve an opposition role for itself in the new devolved Scotland. The 1999 Scottish election was a unique and ironic experience for Scottish Conservatives. Despite an uncompromising Unionist stance at the 1997 election, Scottish Conservatives demonstrated a more pragmatic and cautious face in dealing with constitutional issues.
Many political theorists view the rule of law with suspicion. On the one hand, it can appear mere political rhetoric. On the other hand, certain critics of this rhetorical position identify the rule of law with some notion of good or just law. This chapter argues that some of the problems can be avoided if we see the main task of the rule of law as the prevention of arbitrary rule. Among contemporary political theorists, the rule of law has been closely associated with the work of F. von Hayek, who gave it a pivotal role in his constitutional theory. He believed that interventionist economic policies and totalitarian politics were intimately connected: the one entailed an incremental increase in arbitrary interferences with individual liberty that ultimately led to the other. Republicans trace arbitrariness and domination to asymmetries of power.
Armando Barrientos and Martin Powell
This chapter aims to place the debate about the Third Way in the wider context of European social policy. It builds on Amitai Etzioni's picture to examine the route map of the Third Way. The chapter explores the different definitions of 'the Third Way', and ways of differentiating it from first and second ways. It illustrates some of the themes in the context of Merkel's different ways or paths of social democracy in Europe. Jospin claimed that social democratic plans in Europe were faithful to 'all the values that lie at the heart of socialism: citizenship, social justice, democracy, the desire for progress and the will to control this progress and our collective destiny'. A number of commentators have suggested broad characteristics/themes of the Third Way, or new social democracy.