in The greening of golf


Adams, R. and Rooney, J. R., Jr. (1985). Evolution of American golf facilities. Geographic Review, 75(4), 419–438.

AGSA. (n.d.). About us. Retrieved 18 November 2014 from

Alavanja, M. and Bonner, M. (2012). Occupational pesticide exposures and cancer risk: a review. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B, 15(4), 238–263.

Alexander, M. (1970). Now is the time. The Golf Course Superintendent, September/October, 20–21.

Althusser, L. (1971). Lenin and Philosophy. New York: Monthly Review.

American Society of Golf Course Architects (n.d.). Environmental case studies. Retrieved 15 December 2014 from

Andrews, D. L., Batts, C., and Silk, M. (2014). Sport, glocalization and the new Indian middle class. International Journal of Cultural Studies, 17(3), 259–276.

Andrews, R. N. L. (1998). Environmental regulation and business ‘self-regulation’. Policy Sciences, 31(3), 177–197.

Andrews, R. N. L. (2006). Managing the Environment, Managing Ourselves: A History of American Environmental Policy, second edn. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Anon. (1916a). No title. The Golf Course, January, 2.

Anon. (1916b). No title. The Golf Course, November, 114.

Anon. (1916c). Greenkeeping notes. The Golf Course, August, 81.

Anon. (1916d). No title. The Golf Course, November, 114.

Anon. (1916e). No title. The Golf Course, July, 67–68.

Anon. (1918). The use of dynamite in golf course construction. The Golf Course, January–February, 53–63.

Anon. (1921). Cornell University establishes a course to train men to superintend parks and golf courses. Bulletin of the Green Section of the US Golf Association, July, 141.

Anon. (1930). Investigations in greenkeeping problems. Nature, 125(3140), 30.

Anon. (1936a). A 15-year miracle. Turf Culture, June, 1.

Anon. (1936b). Reviewing the library of grass. Turf Culture, June, 2–12.

Anon. (1946). DDT. Timely Turf Topics, January, 3.

Anon. (1950). Turf and greenkeeping. St Ives Research Station. Nature, 166(4209), 22–24.

Anon. (1966). Poisons. The Golf Superintendent, June, 30–40.

Anon. (1967). Golf course chemical warfare takes to the air. Golf Superintendent, July, 8–9.

Anon. (1968). GCSAA public relations program begins. The Golf Superintendent, July, 23–24.

Anon. (1977). Insect update: turf insect control programs changing from shotgun to rifle shot. Golf Superintendent, February, 17–22.

Anon. (1980). Conservation … our key to the future. Golf Course Management, January/February, 59.

Anon. (1982a). Game-plan for golf. The first zillion years. Golf Course Management, September, 70–76.

Anon. (1982b). A logo with a message. Golf is one of the good guys! Golf Course Management, July, 21–23.

Anon. (1985). With vital commitment to the future. Golf Course Management, February, 18–28.

Anon. (1986). New GCSAA TV spots to be released. Golf Course Management, December, 67–68.

Anon. (1987a). EPA announces action on cadmium. Golf Course Management, September, 96.

Anon. (1987b). GCSAA’s newest member service: government relations. Golf Course Management, June, 6–12.

Anon. (1988a). Presenting a case for golf courses. Golf Course Management, May, 76–78.

Anon. (1988b). Environmental auditing: the EPA perspective. Golf Course Management, November, 54.

Anon. (1988c). Partnership for the future. Golf Course Management, November, 49–52.

Anon. (1988d). Diazinon cancellation reversed by judge. Golf Course Management, March, 132.

Anon. (1990a). Government relations in practice. Golf Course Management, May, 54–56.

Anon. (1990b). Executive summary. Turfgrass: an environmental hero. Golf Course Management, February, 153.

Anon. (1991a). Brief stresses benefits of managed greenspace. GreenMaster, January/February, 21–29.

Anon. (1991b). GCSAA responds to report from New York. Golf Course Management, September, 98.

Anon. (1991c). GCSAA’s environmental award. Golf Course Management, January, 84.

Anon. (1992). Corporate awards program promotes environmental stewardship. Golf Course Management, September, 94.

Anon. (1993a). Sanctuary program available. GreenMaster, January/February, 31–32.

Anon. (1993b). Special recognition for environmental leadership. Golf Course Management, January, 64.

Anon. (1994). Facts about golf course pesticides. GreenMaster, August, 16–17.

Anon. (1995a). Collier’s reserve: state-of-the-art from the start. Golf Course Management, January, 36–42.

Anon. (1995b). GCSAA on ESPN. Golf Course Management, February, 142–144.

Anon. (2000). McMaster wins environmental award. GreenMaster, February/March, 12.

Anon. (2003). GCSAA picks up honor from EPA. Golf Course Management, March, 17.

Anon. (2010). Intimidation at Menie. Menie Voices. Retrieved 29 December, 2014 from

Appadurai, A. (1996). Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.

Arcury‐Quandt, A.E., Gentry, A.L., and Marín, A.J. (2011). Hazardous materials on golf courses: experience and knowledge of golf course superintendents and grounds maintenance workers from seven states. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 54(6), 474–485.

Arnold, R. (1982). The politics of environmentalism. Golf Course Management, August, 45–60.

Arya, N. (2005). Pesticides and human health: why public health officials should support a ban on non-essential residential use. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 96(2), 89–92.

Audubon International (n.d.). Audubon Cooperative Sanctuary Program for Golf Courses. Retrieved 17 December 2014 from

Augustin, B. J. (1982). Does your irrigation system know there’s a water crisis? Golf Course Management, February, 22–25.

Bachand, N. and Gue, L. (2011). Pesticide free? Oui! 2011 progress report: a comparison of provincial cosmetic pesticide bans. Retrieved 28 July 2013 from

Baidy, J. G. (1994). Message from your president. Unseen benefits. Golf Course Management, November, 7.

Bale, J. (1993). Sport, Space and the City. London: Routledge.

Bale, J. (1994). Landscapes of Modern Sport. London: Leicester University Press.

Barclay, J. A. (1992). Golf in Canada. A History. McClelland & Stewart.

Barton, J. (2008). How green is golf? Golf Digest. Retrieved 8 July 2014 from

Baskin, C. (1984). Chemical usages and controversies. Golf Course Management, March, 29–37.

Baxter, A. (Director) (2012). You’ve been Trumped. Montrose, UK: Montrose Pictures.

BBC. (2007, December 12). Trump rejection councillor sacked. Retrieved 29 December 2014 from

Beck, U. (1992) Risk Society, Beverly Hills, CA: SAGE.

Beditz, J. F. (2000). The development and growth of the of the US golf market. In A. J. Cochran and M. Farrally (eds), Science and Golf II: Proceedings of the World Scientific Congress of Golf. London: M.R.E. & F.F. Spon.

Benbrook, C. (2008). Prevention, not profit, should drive pest management. Pesticide News, 83, December.

Berger G., Flynn A., Hines, F., and Johns, R. (2001). Ecological modernization as a basis for environmental policy: current environmental discourse and policy and the implications on environmental supply chain management. Innovation: The European Journal of Social Science Research, 14(1), 55–72.

Berndt, W. L. (1996). For the record … Golf Course Management, February, 68.

Bethune, G. (1980). The thinking superintendent. Agronomy … plus a whole lot more. Golf Course Management, January/February, 46–49.

Beyond Pesticides (n.d.). IPM: an historical perspective. Retrieved 15 December 2014 from

Beyond Pesticides (2011). Daily news blog. Danish government agrees to reduce pesticides. Retrieved 14 December 2014 from

Bicknell, F. (1960). Chemicals in Food and in Farm Produce: Their Harmful Effects. London: Faber & Faber.

Blake, R. C. (1971). Reason over emotion. The Golf Superintendent, March, 7.

Bliss, L. (2015, April 8). Will California’s golf courses survive the drought? Long a symbol of water profligacy, some courses have been conserving for years. Others have not. CITYLAB. Retrieved 7 May 2015 from

Boudway, I. (2013, April 12). The Masters: a sponsorship tradition unlike any other. Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved 15 December 2014 from

Bowen, W. R., Gibeault, V. A., Ohr, H. D. and Thomason, I. J. (1979). IPM. An alternate approach to solving pest problems. Golf Course Management, February, 16–23.

Boyd, D. R. (2003). Unnatural Law: Rethinking Canadian Environmental Law and Policy. Vancouver: UBC Press.

Brandt, J. W. (1968). President’s message. The Golf Superintendent, July, 7.

Briassoulis, H. (2010). ‘Sorry golfers, this is not your spot!’ Exploring public opposition to golf development. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 34(3), 288–311.

Brickell, B. (1969). Guest editorial. The Golf Superintendent, January, 103.

British Golf Museum (n.d.). FAQs. Retrieved 17 December 2014 from

Britton, B. (1988). President’s message. GreenMaster, September/October, 6.

Bryant, J. and Holt, A. M. (2006). A historical overview of sports and media in the United States. In A. A. Raney and J. Bryant (eds), Handbook of Sports and Media (pp. 22–45). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Buttel, F. H. (2000). Ecological modernization as social theory. Geoforum, 31(1), 57–65.

Campbell, M. (2009, March 30). Ontario bans lawn and garden pesticides. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 17 December 2014 from

Campbell, M. (2002). The Scottish golf book. Champaign: Sports Publishing LLC.

Campbell, S. (1996). Green cities, growing cities, just cities? Urban planning and the contradictions of sustainable development. Journal of the American Planning Association, 62(3), 296–312.

Canadian Cancer Society (2013). Our position on pesticides. Retrieved 28 July 2013 from

Canadian Cancer Society (n.d.). Pesticides. Retrieved 23 December 2014 from:

Canadian Environmental Law Association (2012a). The precautionary principle. Retrieved 28 July 2013 from

Canadian Environmental Law Association (2012b). Health and environmental organizations support Ontario-wide ban on cosmetic pesticides. Retrieved 28 July 2013 from

Carlson, J. (2010, March 24). The Vineyard Golf Club: Seven years of organic management. 2010 Superintendent-in-Residence Lecture, Guelph Turfgrass Institute. Guelph, Ontario, Canada. Retrieved 29 December 2014 from

Carrell, S. (2014). Donald Trump loses legal challenge to windfarm near his Scottish golf resort. The Guardian. Retrieved 29 December 2014 from

Carrow, R. N., Duncan, R. R., and Wienecke, D. (2005). BMPs: critical for the golf industry. Golf Course Management, June, 81–84.

Carson, R. (2002 [originally 1962]). Silent Spring. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Castells, M. (1997). The Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture, vol. 2. The Power of Identity. Maldon, MA: Blackwell.

Castells, M. (2012). Networks of Outrage and Hope: Social Movements in the Internet Age. Malden, MA: Polity.

CBC News (2012). Don’t ban cosmetic pesticides, B. C. MLAs recommend. Retrieved 14 December 2014 from

Centre for the Advancement of the Steady State Economy (n.d.). Brent Blackwelder. Retrieved 14 December 2014 from

Ceron-Anaya, H. (2010). An approach to the history of golf: business, symbolic capital, and technologies of the self. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 34(3), 339–358.

CGSA (n.d.a). Education. The golf superintendent. Retrieved 17 December 2014 from

CGSA (n.d.b). Professional designations. History of the CGSA’s professional designation program. Retrieved 17 December 2014 from

CGSA (n.d.c). History. Retrieved 14 December 2014 from

CGSA (2007a). CGSA policy paper concerning the use of IPM to manage golf courses. Retrieved 14 December 2014 from

CGSA (2007b). CGSA statement on the use of pesticides as a component of golf course management. Retrieved 14 December 2014 from

Charters, T. (1989). The golf course pesticides and golfers. GreenMaster, May, 12–36.

Chernushenko, D. (1994). Greening Our Games: Running Sports Events and Facilities that Won’t Cost the Earth. Ottawa: Centurion.

Chernushenko, D., Van der Kamp, A., and Stubbs, D. (2001). Sustainable Sport Management: Running an Environmentally, Socially, and Economically Responsible Organization. United Nations Environment Programme.

Christoff, P. (1996). Ecological modernisation, ecological modernities. Environmental Politics, 5(3), 476–500.

Clark, M. (1997). IPM and BMP: has anything really changed? Golf Course Management, February, 104–108.

Claeys, G. and Tower Sargent, L. (eds) (1999). The Utopia Reader. New York: New York University Press.

Cleaver, G. W. (1978a). President’s message. Individuality fosters professionalism. The Golf Superintendent, July, 9.

Cleaver, G. W. (1978b). President’s message. Changing times demand stronger image. The Golf Superintendent, March, 9.

Cleverdon, R. (2000). Figure it out. Tourism in Focus, 36, 14–15.

CNW Group Ltd (2009). Canadian Cancer Society congratulates Ontario government for passing strong regulations supporting the Cosmetic Pesticide Ban Act. Retrieved 16 December 2014 from cancer-society-congratulates-ontario-government-for-passing-strong-regulations-supporting-the-cosmetic-pesticide-ban-act.

Colding, J., Lundberg, J., Lundberg, S., and Andersson, E. (2009). Golf courses and wetland fauna. Ecological Applications, 19, 1481–1491.

Cousineau, K. (2008). Ontario moves forward on pesticide legislation. GreenMaster, April, 45.

CropLife Canada (2009). CropLife Canada submission to Ontario premier on the Cosmetic Pesticides Ban Act. Retrieved 29 July 2013 from

CropLife Canada (2013a). About us. Retrieved 29 July 2013 from

CropLife Canada (2013b). News releases. CropLife Canada seeks Supreme Court challenge of Toronto pesticide by-law. Retrieved 29 July 2013 from

CropLife Canada (2013c). How is industry protecting people and the planet? Retrieved 3 August 2013 from

Crosset, T. (1995). Outsiders in the Clubhouse: The World of Women’s Professional Golf. Albany, NY: SUNY.

David Suzuki Foundation (n.d.). Highlights of Ontario’s cosmetic pesticide ban. Retrieved 28 July 2013 from

Davidson, S. (2012). The insuperable imperative: a critique of the ecologically modernizing state. Capitalism Nature Socialism, 23(2), 31–50.

Davidson, D. J. and MacKendrick, N. A. (2004). All dressed up with nowhere to go: the discourse of ecological modernization in Alberta, Canada. Canadian Review of Sociology/Revue Canadienne de Sociologie, 41(1), 47–65.

Davis, D. (2002). IPM regional portraits (southeast). In G. L. Schumann, J. Vittum, M. L. Elliott, and P. P. Cobb (eds), IPM Handbook for Golf Courses (pp. 221–237). New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.

Dean, M. (1999). Governmentality – Power and Rule in Modern Society. London: SAGE.

Dennys, H. (2013, May 1). City Diary: Donald Trump protestors petition the Scottish Parliament over golf resort. The Telegraph. Retrieved 29 December 2014 from

Dodson, R. (2001). Fighting for the future. Golf Course Management, February, 208.

Dryzek, J. (2005). The Politics of the Earth: Environmental Discourses, second edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Dryzek, J. and Schlosberg, D. (eds) (2005). Debating the Earth: The Environmental Politics Reader. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Dufresne, M. (1993). President’s message. GreenMaster, January/February, 6.

Ede, B. (1990). The Stockley park project. Landscape Design, 187, 42–47.

Entman, R. M. (1993). Framing: toward clarification of a fractured paradigm. Journal of Communication, 43(4), 51–58.

EPA (1999). 33/50 program: the final record. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 14 December 2014

EPA (2012). Pestwise. An EPA partnership program. PESP Gold Member highlights. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 16 December 2014 from

EPA (2013a). Pestwise. An EPA partnership program. About us. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 16 December 2014 from

EPA (2013b). Pestwise. An EPA partnership program. Silver members. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 16 December 2014 from

EPA (2014a). About Pesticides. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 8 April 2015 from

EPA (2014b). Pesticides: regulating pesticides. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 17 December 2014 from

Ewald, J. A., Aebischer, N. J., and Potts, G. R. (1998). Increasing pesticide use: impacts on wildlife based on 30 years of monitoring. In Proceedings of the Wildlife, Pesticides, and People Conference (pp. 1–16). Fairfax, VA: Rachel Carson Council Inc.

Finn, G. (1971). Professional all the way. GreenMaster, November, 10.

Ford, M. (2011). Trump rules out use of CPOs. Aberdeen Voice. Retrieved 14 May 2015 from

Foster, J. B. (2009). The vulnerable planet. In L. King and D. McCarthy (eds), Environmental Sociology: From Analysis to Action (pp. 25–37). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Foster, J. B. (2012). The planetary rift and the new human exemptionalism: a political-economic critique of ecological modernization theory. Organization and Environment, 25(3), 211–237.

Fox, G. (1995). How about bunking off for the day? Best lie low in the clubhouse tomorrow: It’s World No Golf Day and the backlash is gathering strength. The Independent. Retrieved 5 May 2014 from:

Foy, J. H. (1988). Integrated pest management – A different approach for the same old problems. USGA Green Section Record, September/October, 9–11.

Franke, K. J. (1992). Using computer simulations to predict the fate and environmental impact of applied pesticides. USGA Green Section Record, March/April, 17–21.

Fushtey, S. (1991). Golf course development in the public eye. GreenMaster, November/December, 46–47.

GCM Staff (2001). 20/20 foresight. Golf Course Management, February, 130–132.

GCSAA (n.d.a.). Environmental Institute for Golf. How scholarships shape the game. Retrieved 16 December 2014 from

GCSAA (n.d.b.). Sustainability and the bottom line. Retrieved 15 December 2014 from

GCSAA (n.d.c.). GCSAA Golf Course Environmental Profile first phase. Retrieved 15 December 2014 from

GCSAA (n.d.d.). Environmental Institute for Golf. 2013 annual report. Retrieved 16 December 2014 from

GCSAA (n.d.e). Environmental Institute for Golf. Core competencies. Retrieved 17 December 2014 from

GCSAA (n.d.f). Environmental Institute for Golf. Outreach efforts. Retrieved 17 December 2014 from

GCSAA (n.d.g). Civitas booth visit. Retrieved 13 May 2015 from

GCSAA (2007). Golf Course Environmental Profile. Property profile and environmental stewardship of golf courses, vol. I. Retrieved 16 December 2014 from–property-report.pdf.

GCSAA (2009). GCSAA Golf Course Environmental Profile, Water use and conservation practices on US golf courses, vol. 2. Retrieved 6 May 2015, 2015 from

GCSAA Staff (1991). Golf’s ‘hidden’ benefits shiningly displayed. Golf Course Management, January, 91.

Gibbons, R. (1999). Questions about a gift horse. In R. Gibbons (ed.), Voluntary Initiatives and the New Politics of Corporate Greening (pp. 3–12). Peterborough, ON: Broadview Press.

Gillis, R. V. (1993). RVG report. GreenMaster, January/February, 8.

Goldsmith, L. (1981). The politics of water. Golf Course Management, June, 14–17.

Goldsmith, L. (1982). Our concern for the ’80s. Water. Will it become as precious as oil? Golf Course Management, January, 29–33.

Golf Canada (n.d.). History of golf. Retrieved October 2012 from

Golfdom Staff (2013, 17 September). CIVITAS ONE approved for organic golf course maintenance. Golfdom. Retrieved from 29 December 2014 from

Golf Environment Organization (n.d.a). Recognition of sustainability. Retrieved 14 December 2014 from

Golf Environment Organization (n.d.b). Action. Retrieved 17 December 2014 from

Golf Environment Organization (n.d.c.). Water. Retrieved 8 May 2015 from

Goodman, S. (1999). The computer age. Golf Course Management, January, 302–305.

Gould, K. A., Pellow, D. N., and Schnaiberg, A. (2004). Interrogating the Treadmill of Production: everything you wanted to know about the treadmill but were afraid to ask. Organization and Environment, 17(3), 296–316.

Government of Canada (n.d.). Government of Canada publications. Canada’s climate change: voluntary challenge and registry (VCR). Retrieved 17 December 2014 from

Gramsci, A. (1971). Selections from the Prison Notebooks. New York: International.

Grant, Z. (1987a). Integrated pest management update: the Sherman Hollow story. Golf Course Management, November, 6–82.

Grant, Z. (1987b). What is integrated pest management. Golf Course Management, November, 10–12.

Green Cross Products (1970). Killex Turf Herbicide (advertisement). GreenMaster, January, 7.

Greenberg, J., Knight, G., and Westersund, E. (2011). Spinning climate change: corporate and NGO public relations strategies in Canada and the United States. International Communication Gazette, 73(1–2), 65–82.

Griffiths, D. (1997). Letters. Must we always demand perfection? GreenMaster, February/March, 38.

Gurney, M. (1987). New President launches accreditation program. GreenMaster, May, 9–11.

Hajer, M. A. (1995). The Politics of Environmental Discourse: Ecological Modernization and the Policy Process. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Haass, R. N. (2009, September 2). Haass: what golf teaches us about geopolitics. Newsweek. Retrieved 2 October 2014 from golf-teaches-us-about-geopolitics-79489.

Hannigan, J. (2006). Environmental Sociology, second edn. New York: Routledge.

Hansen, A. A. (1921). The use of chemical weed killers on golf courses. Bulletin of the Green Section of the US Golf Association, July, 128–131.

Harrison, J. (2011). Pesticide Drift and the Pursuit of Environmental Justice. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Harvey, D. (2005). A Brief History of Neoliberalism, New York: Oxford University Press.

Harvey, J., Horne J., and Safai, P. (2009). Alterglobalization, global social movements, and the possibility of political transformation through sport. Sociology of Sport Journal 26(3), 383–403.

Harvey, J., Horne, J., Safai, P., Darnell, S., and Courchesne-O’Neill, S. (2013). Sport and Social Movements: From the Local to the Global. London: Bloomsbury.

Harvey, J. and Houle, F. (1994). Sport, world economy, global culture, and new social movements. Sociology of Sport Journal, 11(4), 337–355.

Hawkins, J. (2014 March 31). Hawk’s Nest: 10 reasons why we love the Masters. Golf Channel. Retrieved 10 December 2014 from

Hayes, G. and Horne, J. (2011). Sustainable development, shock and awe? London 2012 and civil society. Sociology, 45(5), 749–764.

Health Canada (2006). Information note: the new Pest Control Products Act. Retrieved 16 December 2014 from

Health Canada (2012). Economic Management Advisory Committee – members and participants. Retrieved 29 July 2013 from

Health Canada (2013). For the public. Retrieved 17 December 2014 from

Hearn, D. E. (1987a). Message from your president. Pesticide usage today: The need to listen and learn. Golf Course Management, April, 5.

Hearn, D. E. (1987b). GCSAA, government relations and the world about us. Golf Course Management, June, 5.

Hercules Turf and Horticultural Products (1966). Me ready to trade medicine man for 2,4-D (advertisement). The Golf Superintendent, July, 9.

Hitchcock, J. R. (1989). Sports and Media. Terre Haute, IN: ML Express.

Hodges, E. (2014). The social and environmental costs of Rio’s Olympic golf course. RioOnWatch: Community Reporting on Rio. Retrieved from

Hodgetts, R. (2014, April 9). Masters 2014: 18 reasons to love Augusta – golf’s unique event. BBC. Retrieved 15 December 2014 from

Hoffman, A. J. (2001). From Heresy to Dogma: An Institutional History of Corporate Environmentalism. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Hoffman, W. M. (1973). Pesticides in your future. The Golf Superintendent, February, 26–28.

Homer-Dixon, T. (2001). The Ingenuity Gap: Can We Solve the Problems of the Future? Toronto: Vintage Canada.

Horne, J. (1998). The politics of sport and leisure in Japan: Global power and local resistance. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 33(2), 171–182.

Hoskins, W. M., Borden, A. D., and Michelbacher, A. E. (1939). Recommendations for a more discriminating use of insecticides. Proc. 6th Pac. Sci. Congr., 5, 119–23

Howard, L. O. (2008 [originally 1922]). The war against insects. In T. R. Dunlap (ed.), DDT, Silent Spring, and the Rise of Environmentalism: Classic Texts (pp. 20–23). Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Huber, J. (1982). Die verlorene Unschuld der Ökologie. Neue Technologien und superindustrielle Entwicklung (The Lost Innocence of Ecology. New Technologies and Superindustrial Development). Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Fischer.

Huber, J. (1985). Die Regenbogengesellschaft: Ökologie und Sozialpolitik (The Rainbow Society. Ecology and Social Policy). Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Fischer.

Hueber, D. and Worzala, E. (2010). ‘Code blue’ for US golf course real estate development: ‘Code green’ for sustainable golf course development. The Journal of Sustainable Real Estate, 1–37. Retrieved 15 December 2014 from

Hughes, E. L. (2000). A pesticide primer and the need for federal action. Retrieved 28 July 2013 from

Hurdzan, M. J. (1994). Minimizing environmental impact by golf course development: a method and some case studies. In A. R. Leslie (eds), Handbook of Integrated Pest Management for Turf And Ornamentals (pp. 185–202). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press LLC.

Hutchins, B. and Rowe, D. (2012). Sport Beyond Television: The Internet, Digital Media and the Rise of Networked Media Sport. New York: Routledge.

Hutheesing, N. (2013, July 31). According to golf, the economy is out of the rough. Bloomberg Business. Retrieved 8 April 2015 from

IBISWorld (2008). Golf Courses and Country Clubs in the US. Los Angeles: IBISWorld.

IPM Council of Canada (2013a). What is IPM?, IPM Council of Canada. Retrieved 29 July 2013 from

IPM Council of Canada (2013b). IPM accreditation, IPM certification and accreditation. Retrieved 29 July 2013 from

Jackson, J. (2000). Augusta: No. 1 with a snicker. Golfdom, July, 22.

Jarvie, G. (2006). Sport, Culture and Society: An Introduction. New York: Routledge.

Jhally, S. (1984). The spectacle of accumulation: material and cultural factors in the evolution of the sports/media complex. The Insurgent Sociologist, 12(3), 41–57.

Jiggens, M. (n.d.). GTI celebrates 25 years. Turf and Recreation. Retrieved 14 December 2014 from

Johnson, W. O. (1971). Super Spectator and the Electric Lilliputians. Boston, MA: Little, Brown & Co.

Jones, P. (1989). A professional first: a compliance auditing package for the course environment. Golf Course Management, January, 30–38.

Jones, S. (2012). CGC-yeS! GCSAA changes requirements of certification, renewing interest in the program. Golfdom, May, 38–39.

Kaminsky, B. and Seely, K. (2011). Presentation to the Special Committee on Cosmetic Pesticides. Retrieved 6 February 2014 from

Karamichas, J. (2013). The Olympic Games and the Environment. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Kauffman, S. (1999). 1999: GCSAA certification is route for achievers. Golfweek. Retrieved 17 December 2014 from

Keil, R. (2007). Sustaining modernity, modernizing nature: the environmental crisis and the survival of capitalism. In R. Krueger and D. Gibbs (eds), The Sustainable Development Paradox: Urban Political Ecology in the United States and Europe(pp. 41–65). London: Guilford Press.

Kennedy, P. (2014). Councillor Ford comments on Trump pull-out at Menie Estate. Aberdeen and Aberdeenshire Greens. Retrieved December 2014 from

Kerr, C. (1970). A threat to the turf industry. The Golf Superintendent, November/December, 28–29.

Kinkela, D. (2005). The question of success and environmental ethics: revisiting the DDT controversy from a transnational perspective, 1967–72. Ethics, Place and Environment: A Journal of Philosophy and Geography, 8(2), 159–179.

Kinkela, D. (2011). DDT and the American Century: Global Health, Environmental Politics, and the Pesticide that Changed the World. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Klein, B. S. (2012). Green with envy? Don’t be. Golfweek. Retrieved October 2012 from

Knopper, L. D. and Lean, D. R. (2004). Carcinogenic and genotoxic potential of turf pesticides commonly used on golf courses. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B, 7(4), 267–279.

Kogan, M. (1998). Integrated pest management: historical perspectives and contemporary developments. Annual Review of Entomology, 43, 243–270.

Kramer, N. W. (1970a). Certification – stepping stone or stumbling block? Golf Superintendent, June, 9.

Kramer, N. W. (1970b). President’s message. The Golf Superintendent, April, 9.

Krueger, R. and Gibbs, D. (2007). Introduction: Problematizing the politics of sustainability. In R. Krueger and D. Gibbs (eds), The Sustainable Development Paradox: Urban Political Economy in the United States and Europe (pp. 1–11). New York: Guilford Press.

Kross, B., Burmeister, L., Oglivie, L., Fuortes, L., and Fu, C. (1996). Proportional mortality study of golf course superintendents. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 29(5), 501–506.

Krupka, I. (2000). The pest management regulatory agency: the resilience of science in pesticide management. In G. B. Doern and E. J. Reed (eds), Risky Business: Canada’s Changing Science-Based Policy and Regulatory Regime (pp. 234–260). Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Kunimatsu, T., Sudo, M. and Kawachi, T. (1999). Loading rates of nutrients discharging from a golf course and a neighboring forested basin. Water Science and Technology, 39(12), 99–107.

Labelle, C. (1971a). President’s message. To the Canadian Open another champion. GreenMaster, August, 2–3.

Labelle, C. (1971b). President’s message. GreenMaster, November, 2.

Langley, F. (1998). Rhetoric, science and public policy. Golf Course Management, January, 320.

Lansner, J. (2013). Golf courses hit rough economics. Orange County Register. Retrieved 24 February 2014 from:

Larkin, C. G. (1992). The environmental management program. Golf Course Management, March, 58.

Latour, B. (1993). We Have Never Been Modern (translated by C. Porter). New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf.

Leach, B. R. (1921). The Japanese Beetle in relation to golf grounds. Bulletin of the Green Section of the US Golf Association, October, 210–211.

Leach, B. R. (1925). Improvements in the method of treating golf greens for the control of the Japanese Beetle. Bulletin of the Green Section of the US Golf Association, May, 100–102.

Leahy, S. (2011, November 9). Canada cuts environment spending. The Guardian. Retrieved 29 July 2013 from

Legislative Assembly of British Columbia (2012). Report of the Special Committee on Cosmetic Pesticides. Retrieved 17 December 2014 from

Legislative Assembly of Ontario (2008). Committee transcripts: Standing Committee on Social Policy – 9 June 2008 – Bill 64, Cosmetic Pesticides Ban Act, 2008. Retrieved 22 July 2013 from

Leiss, W. (2003). How Canada’s stumbles with environmental risk management reflect an integrity gap. In E. Lee and A. Perl (eds), The Integrity Gap: Canada’s Environmental Policy and Institutions (pp. 25–41). Vancouver: UBC Press.

Lemke, T. (1999). ‘The birth of bio-politics’ – Michel Foucault’s lectures at the Collège de France on neo-liberal governmentality. Economy and Society, 30(2), 190–207.

Lenskyj, H. (1998). Sport and corporate environmentalism: the case of the Sydney 2000 Olympics. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 33(4), 341–354.

Lenskyj, H. (2002) The Best Olympics Ever: Social Impacts of Sydney 2000. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.

Lockyer, A. (2012). From corporate playground to family resort: golf as commodity in post-war Japan. In P. Francks and J. Hunter (eds), The Historical Consumer: Consumption and Everyday Life in Japan, 1850–2000 (pp. 284–305). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Longgood, W. (1960). The Poisons in Your Food. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Lowerson, J. (1993). Sport and the English Middle Class, 1870–1914. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Lucas, M. B., Jr. (1980). A history of greenkeeping and GCSAA. Golf Course Management, October, 57–62.

Lyle, C. (2008 [originally 1947]). Achievements and possibilities in pest eradication. In T. R. Dunlap (ed.), DDT, Silent Spring, and the Rise of Environmentalism: Classic Texts (pp. 44–50). Seattle: University of Washington Press.

MacDonald, D. (2007). Business and Environmental Politics in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

MacNeill, M. (1996). Networks: producing Olympic ice hockey for a national television audience. Sociology of Sport Journal, 13(2), 103–124.

Macomber, L. (1916). Qualifications of an advanced greenkeeper. The Golf Course, March, 27.

Magdoff, F. and Foster, J. B. (2011). What Every Environmentalist Needs to Know About Capitalism: A Citizen’s Guide to Capitalism and the Environment. New York: NYU Press.

Maguire, J., Jarvie, G., Mansfield, L., and Bradley, J. (2002). Sport Worlds: A Sociological Perspective. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Mallin, M. and Wheeler, T. (2000). Nutrient and fecal coliform discharge from coastal North Carolina golf courses. Journal of Environmental Quality, 29(3), 979–986.

Maples, P. Jr. (1976). President’s page: taking stock of accomplishments. The Golf Superintendent, January, 7.

Marchak, P. (1993). The New Right and the Restructuring of Global Markets. Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Marks, J. (1970, March 12). Golf courses against chemical ban. The Globe and Mail, p. 45.

Marquis, C. E. (1980). Lucas to lead GCSAA in 1980. Meeting today’s challenges. Golf Course Management, March, 18–23.

May, E. (2012, April 2). Why the 2012 budget is the worst in Canada’s history., Inc. Retrieved 14 December 2014 from

McAllister, M. L. (2004). Governing Ourselves? The Politics of Canadian Communities. Vancouver: UBC Press.

McCauley, L. (2005). Immigrant workers in the United States: recent trends, vulnerable populations, and challenges for occupational health. AAOHN Journal: Official Journal of the American Association of Occupational Health Nurses, 53(7), 313–319.

McGinnis, L., McQuillan, J., and Chapple, C. L. (2005). I just want to play: women, sexism, and persistence in golf. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 29(3), 313–337.

McKeel, C. (2003). Members rewarded for government relations efforts. Golf Course Management, February, 32.

McKenzie, J. I. (2002). Environmental Politics in Canada: Managing the Commons into the 21st Century. Toronto: Oxford University Press.

McWhirter, R. (1993). Computerized irrigation saves resources, cuts expenses. GreenMaster, May, 29–31.

Meadows, D. H., Meadows, D. L., Randers, J. and Behrens, W. W. III. (1972). The Limits to Growth. New York: Universe Books.

Meadows, D., Randers, J., and Meadows, D. (2004). Limits to Growth: The 30-year Update. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green.

Mellersh, D. (1991). Education key priority for new president. GreenMaster, January/February, 18–20.

Metsker, S. E. (1969). How professional are we …? The Golf Superintendent, February, 32–36.

Metsker, S. (1990). Backing into professionalization. USGA Green Section Record, March/April, 9.

Millington, B. and Wilson, B. (2014). The masters of nature: golf, nonhumans, and consumer culture. In J. Gillett and M. Gilbert (eds), Sport, Animals, and Society (pp. 52–66). New York: Routledge.

Miller, C. (Director) (2010). Donald Trump: All-American Billionaire [Television documentary]. BBC Television.

Mills, C. W. (1959). The Sociological Imagination. London: Oxford.

Misgav, A., Perl, N., and Avnimelech, Y. (2001). Selecting a compatible open space use for a closed landfill site. Landscape and Urban Planning, 55(2), 95–111.

Mol, A. P. J. (2003). Globalization and Environmental Reform: The Ecological Modernization of the Global Economy. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Mol, A. P. J. (2010). Sustainability as global attractor: the greening of the 2008 Beijing Olympics. Global Networks, 10(4), 510–528.

Moss, R. J. (2001). Golf and the American Country Club. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

NAGA (2009). National Allied Golf Association – Environmental position statement. Retrieved 13 December 2014 from

NAGA (2011). National Allied Golf Association – British Columbia pesticide legislation briefing document cover letter. Retrieved 17 December 2014 from

Nash, D. (1989). Tourism as a form of imperialism. In V. Smith (ed.), Host and Guests. The Anthropology of Tourism, second edn (pp. 37–52). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

NGF [National Golf Foundation]. (2009). The Future of Public Golf in America. Jupiter, FL.

Nauright, J. (2012a). Golf, British Isles. In J. Nauright and C. Parrish (eds), Sports Around the World: History, Culture, and Practice (pp. 98–105). Oxford: ABC-CLIO.

Nauright, J. (2012b). Golf, United States and Canada. In J. Nauright and C. Parrish (eds), Sports Around the World: History, Culture, and Practice (pp. 240–246). Oxford: ABC-CLIO.

Nauright, J. and White, P. (1996). Nostalgia, community, and nation: professional hockey and football in Canada. Avante, 2(3), 24–41.

Nelson, J. (2014). From cabinet to CropLife: Menzies avoids ethical scrutiny over new job as top pesticide and GMO lobbyist. Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives. Retrieved 17 December 2014 from

Neo, H. (2010). Unravelling the post-politics of golf course provision in Singapore. Sport and Social Issues, 34(3), 272–287.

Neuberger, A. (1967). Control versus confusion and controversy. USGA Green Section Record, May, 8–9.

Nimmo, D. and McEwen, L. (1994). Pesticides. In P. Calow (ed.), Handbook of Ecotoxicology (pp. 155–203). Oxford: Blackwell Scientific.

Noer, O. J. (1946). How to improve postwar turf maintenance. Golfdom, February, 27–61.

Nutter, G. C. (1964). The consequence of ‘Silent Spring’. The Golf Course Reporter, April, 43–56.

Nylund, D. (2003). Taking a slice at sexism: the controversy over the exclusionary membership practices of the Augusta National Golf Club. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 27(2), 195–202.

O’Connell, R. (1971). Members comment: certification program draws heavy response [Letter submission]. The Golf Superintendent, February, 23.

O’Neill, T. T. (2006). President’s message. It’s a numbers game. Golf Course Management, January, 13.

Olivar, C. (1976). Certification program marks 36% increase. The Golf Superintendent, February, 41–43.

Ontario Ministry of the Environment (2009). Ontario’s Cosmetic Pesticides Ban. Retrieved 29 July 2013 from

Ontario Ministry of the Environment (2013). Pesticides. Retrieved 29 July 2013 from

Oosthoek, S. (2012, August 23). How golf courses are getting greener. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved October 2012 from

Ostmeyer, T. (2001). Keepers of the green: 75 for 75. Golf Course Management, September, 21–72.

Ostmeyer, T. (2008). It’s time to step up! Retrieved 13 September 2015 from

Owen, D. (2003). The Making of the Masters: Clifford Roberts, Augusta National, and Golf’s Most Prestigious Tournament. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Owen, D. (2009, September 16). Drying out. America’s courses are curbing their addiction to water. Golf Digest. Retrieved 6 May 2015 from–11/environment_davidowen_waterconservation.

Palmer, C. (2004). More than just a game: the consequences of golf tourism. In B. W. Ritchie and D. Adair (eds), Sport Tourism: Interrelationships, Impacts and Issues (pp. 117–134). Clevedon: Channel View.

Parascenzo, M. (1981). The times they are a-changing. Golf Course Management, August, 21–27.

Parkkari, J., Natri, A., Kannus, P., Manttari, A., Laukkanen, R., Haapasalo, H., Nenonen, A., Pasanen, M., Oja, P., and Vuori, I. (2000). A controlled trial of the health benefits of regular walking on a golf course. American Journal of Medicine, 109(2), 102–8.

Parliament of Canada (2000). Pesticides. Making the right choice for the protection of health and the environment. Report of the Standing Committee on Environment and Sustainable Development. Retrieved 28 July 2013 from

Paull, J. (2013). The Rachel Carson letters and the making of Silent Spring. SAGE Open, 3(July–September), 1–12.

Pate, J. (1993). Television golf and the golf course superintendent. USGA Green Section Record, May/June, 19–21.

Peacock, C. H. and Smart, M. M. (1995). IPM, monitoring, and management plans: a mandate for the future. USGA Green Section Record, May/June, 10–14.

Pennington, B. (2010). Exclusive golf course is organic, so weeds get in. The New York Times. Retrieved December 2014 from

Pentifallo, C. and VanWynsberghe, R. (2012). Blame it on Rio: isomorphism, environmental protection and sustainability in the Olympic Movement. International Journal of Sport Policy and Politics, 4(3), 427–446.

Perkins, C. (2010). The performance of golf: landscape, place, and practice in north west England. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 34(3), 312–338.

Perkins, C., Mincyte, D., and Cole, C. L. (2010). Special issue: making the critical links and the links critical in golf studies. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 34(3), 267–375.

Peshin, R., Bandral, R. S., Zhang, W., Wilson, L., and Dhawan, A. K. (2009). Integrated pest management: a global overview of history, programs and adoption. In R. Peshin and A. K. Dhawan (eds), Integrated Pest Management: Innovation-Development Process (pp. 1–49). Springer Netherlands. (2011). Timeline of African-American achievements in golf. PGA. Retrieved 3 December 2014 from (2013). America’s first golf club marks a major anniversary. Retrieved 17 December 2014 from golf-club-marks-major-anniversary.

Pick, M. C. (1978). Professional turf varieties for professional turf managers. GreenMaster, May, 4–8.

Pitock, T. (2009). Turf wars. Australia Golf Digest, 90–94.

PMEP [Pest Management Education Program]. (n.d.). Cadmium compounds EPA Pesticide Fact Sheet 4/91. Retrieved 20 December 2014 from

Poellot, J. M. (1991). Striving to attain environmental enchantment: the need for expertise as golf grows globally. Golf Course Management, February, 6–159.

Popham, P. (2012). Tee’d off: The residents of Foveran Links speak out about Donald Trump’s golf project. The Independent. Retrieved December 2014 from

Porter, C. (2013, May 31). How a morning stroll led to a pesticide ban. Retrieved 28 July 2013 from

Post, D., van Veen, T. S., Meyersburg, M., and Bessmer, J. B. (2010). Golf at a crossroads: hazardous or healthy strategies. Outlooks on Pest Management, 21(3), 113–121.

Powell, A. J. Jr. (1970a). Beware of ‘Satchmo’. The Golf Superintendent, May, 54.

Powell, A. J. Jr. (1970b). Beware of ‘Satchmo’. GreenMaster, June, 21–22.

Prakash, A. and Potoski, M. (2006). The Voluntary Environmentalists: Green Clubs, ISO 14001, and Voluntary Environmental Regulations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Price, S. J., Guzy, J., Witczak, L., and Dorcas, M. E. (2013). Do ponds on golf courses provide suitable habitat for wetland-dependent animals in suburban areas? An assessment of turtle abundances. Journal of Herpetology, 47(2), 243–250.

Priestley, G. K. and Ashworth, G. J. (1995). Sports Tourism: The Case of Golf. Tourism and Spatial Transformations. Wallingford: CAB.

R&A (n.d.a.). Environmental impact. Retrieved 12 December 2014 from

R&A (n.d.b.). Using water efficiently. Retrieved 12 December 2014 from

R&A (n.d.c.). Using chemicals responsibly. Retrieved 12 December 2014 from

R&A (2013). Danes count pesticide applications. Retrieved 17 December 2014 from

Readman, M. (2003). Golf tourism. In S. Hudson (ed.), Sport and Adventure Tourism (pp. 165–201). Binghamton, NY: Haworth.

Record, L. (1967). Fungicides – Forever more? USGA Green Section Record, July, 1–5.

Redclift, M. (1986). Redefining the environmental ‘crisis’ in the South. In J. Weston (ed.), Red and Green: The New Politics of the Environment (pp. 80–101). London: Pluto.

Rees, E. (2008). Taking a swing. The Ecologist, 38(6), 42–45.

Riley, B. (1995). Hot water: a ‘cool’ new weed control method. Journal of Pesticide Reform, 15(1), 9.

Riordan, C. (2003). Partnership with EPA creates win-win. Golf Course Management, October, 32.

Robbins, P. (2007). Lawn People: How Grasses, Weeds, and Chemicals Make us Who we Are. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Roberts, T. (1966). President’s message: an open letter to the agricultural chemical industry. The Golf Superintendent, November/December, 6.

Rosillon, J. (1981). Where has all the water gone? Golf Course Management, October, 32–35.

Rowe, D. (2013). The sport/media complex: formation, flowering, and future.In D. L. Andrews and B. Carrington (eds), A Companion to Sport (pp. 61–77). Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Sampson, C. (1999). The Masters: Golf, Money, and Power in Augusta, Georgia. New York: Random House, Inc.

Sandberg, L. A. and Foster, J. (2005). Challenging lawn and order: environmental discourse and lawn care reform in Canada. Environmental Politics, 14(4), 478–494.

Sander, B. (1966). The thinking superintendent. No salesmen allowed. The Golf Superintendent, April, 40.

Sandomir, R. (2013, August 7 ). Adding golf to its lineup, Fox Sports acquires rights to United States Open. The New York Times. Retrieved 15 December 2014 from

Schnaiberg, A. (1980). The Environment: From Surplus to Scarcity. New York: Oxford University Press.

Schnaiberg, A. and Gould, K. (2000). Environment and Society: The Enduring Conflict. West Caldwell, NJ: Blackburn.

Schroeder, K. (2011). Environmental Law. New York: Delmar.

Schumann, G. L., Vittum, J., Elliott, M. L., and Cobb, P. (eds) (2002). IPM Handbook for Golf Courses. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.

Scottish Natural Heritage (n.d.). Sites of special scientific interest. Retrieved December 2014 from

Shackelford, G. (2012). The Augusta syndrome revisited. Golf Digest. Retrieved October 2012 from

Sharp, S. (2000). Great expectations. Battling the dreaded ‘Augusta National syndrome’. Golfdom, May, 20–24.

Shell Vapona Insecticide (1966). A Vapona® fog can reduce a mosquito problem to almost nothing in a matter of minutes (advertisement). Golf Superintendent, May, 29.

Sherman, R. C., Bishop, D. M., and Bruneau, A. H. (1983). The turfgrass IPM concept. Golf Course Management, April, 45–46.

Shmavonian, K. (2011, April 4). The Masters: schlock unlike any other. Forbes. Retrieved 18 September 2014 from

Simmons, J. S. (2008 [originally 1945]). How magic is DDT? In T. R. Dunlap (ed.), DDT, Silent Spring, and the Rise of Environmentalism: Classic Texts (pp. 31–38). Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Smith, M. B. (2001). ‘Silence, Miss Carson!’ Science, gender, and the reception of ‘Silent Spring’. Feminist Studies, 27(3), 733–752.

Snow, J. T. (1991). The USGA’s environmental program. USGA Green Section Record, March/April, 11–13.

St Andrews Links (n.d.). Retrieved 17 December 2014 from

Staggenborg, S. (2008). Social Movements. Don Mills, ON: Oxford University Press.

Steklasa, R. (1977). What do you do when insects start liking the pesticides? GreenMaster, July/August, 2.

Strawn, J., Barger, J., and Rogers, J. D. (2011). Earth as medium: the art and engineering of golf course construction. In S. D. Brunn (ed.), Engineering Earth: The Impacts of Megaengineering Projects, vol. 1 (pp. 1159–1190). London: Springer.

Stoddart, B. (1990). Wide world of golf: a research note on the interdependence of sport, culture, and economy. Sociology of Sport Journal, 7(4), 378–388.

Stoddart, M. C. J. (2012). Making Meaning out of Mountains: The Political Ecology of Skiing. Vancouver: UBC Press.

Stolle-McAllister, J. (2004). Contingent hybridity: the cultural politics of Tepoztlán’s anti-golf movement. Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power, 11, 195–213.

STRI (n.d.). History of STRI. Retrieved 17 December 2014 from

Suncor Energy Inc. (n.d.a). Oil sands. Retrieved 13 May 2015 from

Suncor Energy Inc. (n.d.b). What is Civitas? Retrieved 13 May 2015 from

Suncor Energy Inc. (2009). CIVITAS™ fungicide unveiled at golf industry show. Retrieved 13 May 2015 from

Swyngedouw, E. (2010). Apocalypse forever? Post-political populism and the spectre of climate change. Theory, Culture and Society, 27(2–3), 213–232.

The Futures Company (2012). Golf’s 2020 vision: the HSBC report. HSBC. Retrieved 15 December 2014 from

The Huffington Post, Inc. (2012, December 5). Michael Forbes’ ‘Top Scot’ award basically proves Scotland hates Donald Trump. Retrieved December 2014 from

The Royal Calcutta Golf Club (n.d.). History. Retrieved 17 December 2014 from

The Royal Montreal Golf Club (2011). Club history. Retrieved October 2012 from

The Scotsman (2010). Protesters grab land in bid to foil Trump’s estate plan. Retrieved 20 December 2014 from

The Scottish Government (n.d.). Compulsory purchase order. Retrieved 29 December 2014 from

Tillinghast, A. W. (1916a). Modern golf chats. The Golf Course, January, 1–7.

Tillinghast, A. W. (1916b). Modern golf chats. The Golf Course, February, 9–19.

Touraine, A. (1977). The Self-Production of Society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Turfgrass Information File (n.d.a). About The Golf Course. Retrieved 17 December 2014 from

Turgrass Information File (n.d.b). USGA® Green Section Record. About this journal. Retrieved 20 December 2014 from

UNESCO (2006). UNESCO Water e-Newsletter No. 155: water and tourism. Retrieved 7 May 2015 from

USGA (n.d.). Environmental principles for golf courses in the United States. Retrieved 15 December 2014

USGA (2009). The USGA’s environmental commitment. Retrieved 14 December 2014 from

Valentine, J. (1947). Efficiency is keynote of better course management. Golfdom, Fall, 68–70.

Vamplew, W. (2010). Sharing space: inclusion, exclusion, and accommodation at the British golf club before 1914. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 34(3), 359–375.

Van Buskirk, R. G. (1971). A positive perspective on pesticides. GreenMaster, September, 8–16.

Van Riper, T. (2012, March 2). Sports media rights keep rolling – for now. Forbes. Retrieved 15 December 2014 from

VanWynsberghe, R., Surborg, B., and Wyly, E. (2013). When the games come to town: neoliberalism, mega-events and social inclusion in the Vancouver 2010 winter Olympic games. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research. 37(6), 2074–2093.

Wagoner, C. A. (1971). Certification for GCSAA members. USGA Green Section Record, September, 6–7.

Wagoner, C. A. (1974). The superintendent in the 70s. USGA Green Section Record, March, 5–7.

Watts, J. (2010). All the tees in China: golf boom threatens rainforest. With its 1,000-year-old trees, Hainan was a rare conservation success. But now fairways stretch as far as the eye can see. The Guardian. Retrieved 27 December 2014 from:

WCED (World Commission on Environment and Development) (1987). Our Common Future. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

We Are Golf (n.d.a). A game for all. Retrieved 16 December 2014 from

We Are Golf (n.d.b). Advocacy issues. Retrieved 16 December 2014 from

Webb, K. and Clarke, D. (2004). Voluntary codes in the United States, the European Union and developing countries: a preliminary survey. In K. Webb (ed.), Voluntary Codes: Private Governance, the Public Interest and Innovation (pp. 335–376). Ottawa: Carleton Research Unit for Innovation, Science and Environment.

West Coast Environmental Law (2011). Memo to Special Committee on Cosmetic Pesticides. Retrieved 15 December 2014 from

Whannel, G. (1992). Fields in Vision: Television Sport and Cultural Transformation. London: Routledge.

Wheeler, K. and Nauright, J. (2006). A global perspective on the environmental impact of golf. Sport in Society, 9(3), 427–443.

White-Stevens, R. (1972). A perspective of pesticides. USGA Green Section Record, July, 17–21.

Whitson, D. and Gruneau, R. (1997). The (real) integrated circus: political economy, popular culture, and ‘major league’ sport. In W. Clement (ed.), Understanding Canada: Building on the New Canadian Political Economy (pp. 359–385). Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen’s Press.

Whitten, R. (2010, October 12). The most significant of each decade. Golf Digest. Retrieved 20 December 2014 from–11/most-important-courses-methodology.

Wickenden, L. (1955). Our Daily Poison: The Effects of DDT, Fluorides, Hormones and Other Chemicals on Modern Man. New York: Devin-Adair.

Williams, B. R. (1997). Message from your President. We’ve come a long way. Golf Course Management, February, 7.

Williams, R. (1977). Marxism and Literature. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Williams, S. S. (1983). Thinking superintendent: spray with restraint. Golf Course Management, June, 78.

Wilson, B. (2007). New media, social movements, and global sport studies: a revolutionary moment and the sociology of sport. Sociology of Sport Journal, 24(4), 457–477.

Wilson, B. (2012a). Growth and nature: reflections on sport, carbon neutrality, and ecological modernization. In D. Andrews and M. Silk (eds), Sport and Neo-liberalism: Politics, Consumption, and Culture (pp. 90–108). Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.

Wilson, B. (2012b). Sport and Peace: A Sociological Perspective. Don Mills, ON: Oxford University Press.

Wilson, B. and Millington, B. (2015). Sport and environmentalism in a post-political era. In R. Giulianotti (ed.), Sociology of Sport Handbook (pp. 366-376). New York: Routledge.

Wilson, B. and Millington, B. (2013). Sport, ecological modernization, and the environment. In D. Andrews and B. Carrington (eds), A Companion to Sport (pp. 129–142). Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Wilson, B., Van Luijk, N., and Boit, M. (2013). When celebrity athletes are ‘social movement entrepreneurs’: a study of the role of elite runners in run-for-peace events in post-conflict Kenya in 2008. International Review for the Sociology of Sport. Published ‘Online First’, DOI: 10.1177/1012690213506005.

Wilson, B. and White, P. (2002). Revive the pride: social process, political economy, and a fan-based grassroots movement. Sociology of Sport Journal, 19(2), 119–148.

Wilson, H. I. (1925). A proportioning machine for use in applying chemicals. Bulletin of the Green Section of the US Golf Association, February, 33–34.

Wind, H. W. (1955). The Masters. Sports Illustrated. Retrieved 15 December 2014 from

Winter, J. (2006). Dreams of Peace and Freedom: Utopian Moments in the Twentieth Century. New Haven, CT: Yale Press.

Winter, J. G., Somers, K. M., Dillon, P. J., Paterson, C. and Reid, R. A. (2002). Impacts of golf courses on macroinvertebrate community structure in precambrian shield streams. Journal of Environmental Quality, 31, 2015–2025.

Witteveen, G. (1986). Preparing for play: the look of construction at one northern site. Golf Course Management, November, 32–38.

Wolfrum, W. K. (2008). The global anti-golf movement: golf’s ultimate enemy celebrates 15 years of having a manifesto. Retrieved 20 December 2014 from

Woods, W. (1985). Construction of a ‘new’ St. Andrews shows that Golf is thriving in Japan. GreenMaster, November/December, 19–20.

World Watch Institute (2004). Matters of scale – planet golf. World Watch Magazine, 17(2). Retrieved 7 May 2015 from:

Wright, E. O. (2007). Guidelines for envisioning real utopias. Soundings, 36, 26–39.

Wright, E. O. (2010). Envisioning Real Utopias. London: Verso.

Wright, E. O. (2013). Transforming capitalism through real utopias. American Sociological Review, 78(1), 1–25.

Wyllie, J. A. (1982). Message from your president: the Masters, a visible standard. Golf Course Management, May, 5.

Ziemer, B. (2009). Going green in Grand Forks. The Vancouver Sun. Retrieved 29 December 2014 from

Žižek, S. (1999). The Ticklish Subject. London: Verso.

Zucker, L. (1988). Institutional Patterns and Organizations. New York: Ballinger.

The greening of golf

Sport, globalization and the environment



All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 190 177 35
PDF Downloads 81 80 9

Related Content