Index
in Soaking up the rays

Index

Actinotherapy Technique handbooks 734
AEG see Allgemeine Elektrizitäts-Gesellschaft
Ajax Ltd 5, 9, 111, 112, 204
Akhenaten 149
Alexander, F. W. 656
Alexandra (Queen of United Kingdom) 27, 59, 252
Allgemeine Elektrizitäts-Gesellschaft 158
Alpine Sun Lamp 1467, 147, 148, 155, 158, 163, 1645, 208
amenorrhoea 211
ancient Egyptian reliefs 149
ancient history of light therapy 301, 105
Anderson, Elizabeth 198
Angle of Incidence 87 n.91
Anzieu, Didier 103
arc lamps see carbon arc lamps
architecture 34
‘art’ of light therapy 1720
artefacts 114, 115, 133 n.89
arthritis 12
artificial suns 133 n.82
artists 1719
Ash, Edwin 99
atavism 194, 211, 231
athletes 2267
avant-garde painting 1556
Bach, Hugo 12
bactericidal properties of light 10, 26, 100, 199, 226
Baumer, Lewis 193, 194, 200, 229
Beaumont, William 33, 50, 64, 68, 74, 107, 165, 199, 2245, 2256, 234, 253
Becquerel, Henri 1423
before and after photographs 2056, 206
Behrens, Peter 158
Bermondsey Public Health Centre 34, 207
Bernhard, Oskar 234, 301, 45 n.76, 148, 174, 195, 219, 21921, 220, 2256
Bidwell, Shelford 124, 1467
Bie, Valdemar 59, 130 n.54
biomedicine 79
bleaching 248 n.168
blinding light 11823
blood 196, 198201
bloodflow 211
blue-light therapy 96, 98, 100, 248 n.168
Blunt, Thomas 26, 100
bodily transparency 15960, 1624
bodybuilding 214
Bouchacourt, Léon 100
boxing 2267
Branksome Chine Solarium 27
Braun, J. A. 213
breast cancer 110
breastfeeding 2078
British Association of Dermatologists 81
British Journal of Physical Medicine 146
Broders, Roger 19
Brody, Charles 233, 234
Brody, Malvine 211
Bruce-Porter, Bruce 191
Burnett, Frances Hodgson 223
burns 86 n.83, 169
cancer 110, 145, 1735, 187 n.161, 210
Cancer Research UK 81, 133 n.85, 187 n.161, 254, 256, 257
Cantor, David 79
carbon arc lamps 9, 41n22, 579, 63, 1067, 108, 11013, 112, 131 n.64, 166, 197
cauterisation 105, 144
Cavendish Electrical Company 166
Cawadias, Alexander 79
CBAL see Committee on the Biological Actions of Light
Celanese fabric 41 n.7, 213, 225, 242 n.97
Chanel, Coco 29
Charcot, Jean-Martin 51
Charing Cross Hospital 7, 8
Cheatle, G. Lenthal 174
chemicals 131 n.55
chemistry of light 1002
Chiaïs, François 62
children 347, 48 n.142, 2225, 245 n.128, 2523
Chisholm, Catherine 208
chlorophyll 196
chromophobia 229
chromotherapy 98
cigarettes 205
Cleaves, Margaret 1067
Coblentz, William Weber 86 n.78
cod liver oil 204
Codd, J. Alfred 106
Colebrook, Dora 8, 657, 2078, 222
Colebrook, Leonard 69, 199
colour value of suntan 22730
coloured light 98100
combining rays 1648, 179 n.37
Committee on the Biological Actions of Light10–11, 65, 66
complexion of skin 228
Conan Doyle, Arthur 200
conjunctivitis 120, 135 n.110
consumption of light 2015
Copenhagen technique 63
Cosine Law 87 n.91
Côte d’Azur 23
Cowell, S. J. 203
Crookes, William 169
Cross, Henri-Edmond 23
Cubism 1556
Curie, Pierre and Marie 142, 150
Daily Herald 11516, 117
damaged prints 11116, 125, 133 n.85
Dane, Victor 93, 189, 191, 196, 199, 200, 224
dangers of light therapy 16972
darkrooms 98100, 104, 11819, 128 n.21
dead points 3940, 234, 253
death by light 1725
Deck, Edward James 1, 6, 33, 1745, 2045, 224, 245 n.131, 251, 255
décoloration 248 n.168
dental light therapy 2012, 203, 204
depigmentation 2334
dermatitis 169, 170
dodging 127 n.7
domestic electric lighting 133 n.81
domestication 172, 186 n.144
dosages of treatments 6780, 86 n.78, 87 n.95, 144
Downes, Arthur 26, 100
Doyle, Arthur Conan 200
Draper’s Law 1989
Duchamp, Marcel 1556
dysmenorrhoea 211
eating light 2015, 239 n.52
efficacy of light therapy 12, 126, 134 n.100
Egyptian reliefs 149
Eidinow, Albert 11, 52, 635, 6870, 778, 81, 85 n.68, 87 n.95, 1034, 163, 191, 195200, 223, 234
Eidinow test-dosage armlet 70, 86 n.74
El Lissitzky 157, 158
electric farms 205
electric lighting 133 n.81
electrical equipment 78
electricity 111, 139, 180 n.43, 186 n.144
electromagnetic forces 31
eosin 186 n.150
epitheliomas 131 n.58
eroticism 17
erythemata 42 n.28, 512
see also solar erythema
eugenics 39, 191, 194, 227
Eugenics Society 236 n.10
exposure methods 614
eye treatments 121, 135 n.110
farms 205
Fidus 17
films 16
Findlay, George William Marshall 173, 175
Finsbury Health Centre 34, 207
Finsen, Niels
before and after photographs 104
cameras 130 n.49
dark rooms 98100
development of phototherapy 267, 31, 549
irradiated forearm 50, 51, 57, 69, 94, 1601, 173
lenses 105
light baths 61
lupus vulgaris treatment 199
patient with compressor 58
physiological action of light 137
pigmentation 1978
sculpture 18
self-experimentation 50, 51, 57, 69, 94, 1601, 173
on self-testing 83 n.18
X rays 142, 143
Finsen Institute 267, 57, 61, 63
Finsen lamp 579, 58, 105, 2512
see also carbon arc lamps
First World War 225, 226
Fitzpatrick, Thomas B. 197
‘fixing’ 689
flash photography 121
Flaskamp, Wilhelm 208, 211
Fletcher, Walter Morley 65
Flügel, John Carl 213, 221
food, irradiated 67
football 226
France 23
Fripp, Alfred 24, 225
Fry, Edwin Maxwell 34
galvanic suspensory belts 16
Gamgee, Katherine 35
gamma rays see X rays
Gauvain, Henry 12, 278, 31, 33, 36, 41 n.19, 48 n.122, 48 n.134, 50, 59, 63, 66, 121, 135 n.110, 165, 1956, 208, 216, 222
genitalia 213, 243 n.102
Gibbings, Robert 213, 214, 243 n.101
glare 134 n.104
glow 228, 247 n.154
Godneff, T. V. 161
goggles 9, 16, 113, 11920, 138, 139, 183 n.93, 185 n.127
Golden Tan sunscreen 200
Gregory, Yvonne 21719
Gropius, Walter 158
Guy’s Hospital 7, 11415, 116
gynaecological treatments 20810
haematoporphyrin 173, 174
Hall, Percy 1723
Hamilton, Allan 67, 223
Hanovia Quartz Lamp Co. Ltd 9, 34, 734, 1467, 147, 152, 1701, 1912, 205, 21112
Harmsworth, Alfred 27
hazardous chemicals 131 n.55
Heald, C. B. 78
health 191
health campaign posters 2578
health centres 34
Health & Efficiency 214
hélio-marin treatment 27
heliotherapy 3, 11, 278, 40 n.3, 59, 60, 612, 68, 226
Herschel, William 101
Hess, Alfred Fabian 203
Hill, Leonard
architecture 48 n.134
art 45 n.76
cancer 174
children 223
darkrooms 134 n.100
dosages of treatments 6970, 103
exposure 63
genitalia, exposure of 213
heliotherapy 28
Light Treatment in Surgery 48 n.122
London Light Clinic 33
National Institute for Medical Research 11, 313
People’s League of Health 225
physiological effects of light 199
pigmentation 191, 196, 234
sexual power 207, 227
solar erythema 52, 81, 195
standardisation of light therapy 645
transillumination 163
ultra-violet radiation 189
hindsight 1617
history of light therapy 201, 301
holism 789
Holland, Sydney 8, 27
Homesun lamp 9, 74, 152, 1545, 18990, 191, 193, 197, 2001, 2078, 222, 2268
Home-Sunlight Arc Lamp 171
home-use lamps 13740, 1467, 1503, 151, 152, 1545, 1678, 172, 184 n.121, 185 n.135, 252, 254
Höppener, Hugo 17
Houstoun, R. A. 118
Howalt, Nicolai 255, 2557
Huldschinsky, Kurt 200, 203
Hull Corporation Clinic 115
hygiene 2301
Hysteria 16
incandescent light 107
infrared lamps 146, 158
infrared photography 230, 247 n.164
infrared radiation 12, 101, 148, 163, 1656
Institute of Ray Therapy 33, 94, 166
Inverse Squares, Law of 87 n.91
irradiated food 67, 2023, 205
Jackson, William 117
Jesionek, Albert 198
Johnson, James 25
Kellogg, John Harvey 131 n.58, 197
Kenwood 224
Kime, J. W. 131 n.59
King-Brown, Richard 208
King’s College Hospital 7
Kiss of Light exhibition 48 n.146
Kocher, Theodor 24
Kodak 130 n.50
Kupka, František 1556
lactation 2078
lamp industry 66
Landouzy, Louis 195
Lane, William Arbuthnot 191
Langdon, Beatrice 2512, 258 n.3
Law of Inverse Squares 87 n.91
Lawrence, Christopher 789
Lawrence, D. H. 212
Le Corbusier 34, 158
leisure 2830
lens flare 11314, 114
Levick, Murray 2523
Levy-West Pastilles 87 n.95
lidos 34
light
action on bodies 1014, 196, 255
bactericidal properties 10, 26, 100, 199, 226
blood absorption 198201
chemistry of 1002
consumption through orifices 2015
eating 2015, 239 n.52
and electromagnetic forces 31
as food 192
and leisure 2830
natural 27, 154, 1647, 197
psychological effects 12
regenerative 159, 192
scientific theories 159
therapeutic 30, 33
light baths 61, 166
light clinics 24, 334
light death 1725
Light Department (London Hospital) 59, 60, 104
light registers 94, 1029
light shock 121, 126, 1689
light technologies 95, 131 n.64
Lloyd George, David 191
Lodge, Oliver 137, 140, 169
London Hospital 7, 27, 59, 60
London Light Clinic 334, 245 n.131
Lord Mayor Treloar Cripples’ Hospital see Treloar Hospital
Lovibond colorimeter 87 n.95
Luckiesh, Matthew 56, 69, 107
Lumière brothers 99100
lupus vulgaris 26, 27, 42 n.25, 44 n.56, 545, 55, 59, 105, 143, 199, 244 n.115, 252
McCollum, Elmer Verner 203
MacCormac, Henry 163
McCrea, H. Moreland 163
Maklakoff, A. N. 83 n.18
Malgat, Joseph 161, 162
Man Ray 230, 231
Mann, Sally 48 n.142
marine searchlights 106, 1067
massage 1723
massagers 16
material culture 22
medical devices 16
Medical Research Council 8, 1011, 53, 65, 66
medicine
and art 21
and leisure 29
light therapy as 141
Mellanby, Edward 203
menopause 21112
Men’s Dress Reform Party 213
menstruation 207, 211
mental health 222, 254
mercury vapour lamps 89, 22, 121, 1378, 138, 1505, 151, 152, 158, 163, 166, 16871, 18990, 197
Meyer-Betz, F. 173, 174
microscopy 155
Middlesex Hospital 7
minimal perceptible erythema 64, 69, 70, 74
miscarriage 139, 211
Moholy-Nagy, László 156, 158, 159, 160, 164
montage 122, 126, 1401, 156, 1568, 157, 164
Monteuuis, Albert 204
Morris, Hugh 69
MPE see minimal perceptible erythema
MRC see Medical Research Council
Müller, Jacomo 200
Müller, Jørgen Peter 204, 231, 234
Municipal Sunlight Clinic 224
Nachtkultur 25, 232, 249 n.172, 249 n.176
National Institute for Medical Research 11, 634, 69
naturism 158, 21314
Nefertiti 149
negrophilia 193, 229, 233
New Health Society 33, 225
Nightingale, Florence 256
NIMR see National Institute for Medical Research
Nivea 255, 2578
Nogier, Thomas 100
North Islington Infant Welfare Centre 207, 224
Noyes, Alfred 2345
nude sunbathing 242 n.98
nudes 17
nudist photographs 48 n.147
nurses 252
open arc phototherapy 904, 91, 92, 93, 94
Original Hanau mercury vapour lamp 158
overexposure 95, 11116, 125, 133 n.84, 171
Pacini, August John 56, 69
painters 17
Palm, Theobald 26, 1001, 245 n.132
Pancoast, Henry 248 n.168
Park, Bertram 21719
patients 2523
Peckham Health Centre 34
Peebles Hydropathic Hotel 141
pellicules 103, 129 n.44, 155
People’s League of Health 33
Perihel Twin Ray lamp 148, 164, 184 n.121
Petersen, Jack 2267
Photo Therapy 127 n.11
photogenic bodies 39, 198, 200
photograms 159
photographers 18, 252
photographs 1216, 19, 24, 27, 48 n.147, 501
before and after 2056, 206
as documents 1245
exposure times 244 n.110
and skin 127 n.8
photography 20, 689, 713, 21921
infrared 230, 247 n.164
and light therapy 95, 10923
penetrative 1603
and phototherapy 95, 96109
and supernatural 169
techniques 122, 146
see also montage; retouching
and ultraviolet radiation 101
photomontage 156, 1568, 157
see also montage
photosensitivity 1112, 78, 88 n.105, 186 n.150
phototypes 197
pigmentation 189
see also suntan
Pleasonton, Augustus 96, 98, 100
pregnancy 207
preventive care 225
procreativity 207, 21113
prostate massagers 16
The Psychology of Clothes 213
puberty 211
punctum 11516
Quarzlampen-Gesellschaft mbH 158
racial categorisation 22830, 247 n.164, 250 n.188
racial difference 1978
racial identity 2313
racial miscegenation 230
racial pigmentations 163
radiation burns 169, 170
radiography 155
see also X rays
radiology 103
radiotherapy 47 n.119
radium 145, 14950, 150, 165, 1667, 169, 210
see also X rays
receptivity to light therapy 10
red-light therapy 989
regeneration 159, 192, 194
regulation 171
Renoir, Pierre-Auguste 23
reproductions 129 n.39
retouching 13, 97, 122, 143, 146, 213, 221
Revigator radium jar 149
Reyn, Axel 48 n.122, 52, 61, 63, 142
RIBA see Royal Institute of British Architects
Richardson, Benjamin 160, 164
rickets 6, 10, 11, 26, 35, 1967, 203, 204, 2078, 245 n.132
risks of light therapy 16972
Ritter, Johann Wilhelm 101
Rollier, Auguste 234, 27, 45 n.76, 612, 63, 7980, 104, 135 n.110, 180 n.51, 195, 196, 199200, 2056, 222, 226, 255
Röntgen, Wilhelm 1423
Rowland, Henry Augustus 102
Royal Institute of British Architects 1
Royal London Hospital 7, 27, 59, 60
Royal Orthopaedic Hospital 7, 15
Russ, Sidney 7, 8, 35, 154, 155
Russell, Eleanor H. and William K. 28, 70, 90, 95, 103, 119, 121, 167, 21011, 213, 223
Sabatier effect 11718
Saidman, Jean 71, 85 n.70
Saidman Sensitometer 71, 72, 103
St Bartholomew’s Hospital 7
St Mary’s Hospital 7
St Thomas’s Hospital 122, 123
Saleeby, Caleb 25, 27, 28, 33, 35, 45 n.76, 46 n.88, 109, 154, 191, 1956, 230, 243 n.106
Sandow, Eugen 214
Saussure, Horace-Bénédict de 82 n.5
scandals 656
Scheele, Carl Wilhelm 101
Schulze, Johann Heinrich 101
scientific theories of light 159
sculpture 1819
séances 1689
searchlights 1067
Second World War 2256
self-testing 75, 173
Senebier, Jean 101
Sequeira, James 27, 48 n.122, 66, 1612, 197
Serpentine Lido 34
sexual desire 172
sexual dysfunction 16
sexual energy 12
sexual maturity 211
sexual power 189, 207, 227
sexualization 21011, 212
Shaw, George Bernard 87 n.91
shine 228, 247 n.154
Simpson lamp 161
skin cancer 110, 1735, 187 n.161
skin diseases 10
SLHWC see South London Hospital for Women and Children
slums 132 n.70
smallpox 989
Smith, Alma 259 n.9
snow blindness 120, 135 n.110
soap 2301
solar energy 189, 191
solar erythema 513, 53, 54, 63, 7380
chart 73, 767, 87 n.99
degrees of 86 n.85
Finsen, Neil 51, 56, 59
perceptions of 81
photographs 70
production 51, 534, 57, 72, 89 n.121
standardisation 802
X rays 144
solarisation 11718, 119, 134 n.94, 134 n.97, 230
soldiers 2256
Sollux lamp 158
South London Hospital for Women and Children 90, 91, 92, 10910
spectroscopy 1012, 102
spectrum photographs 134 n.94
spiritualism 169
squamous carcinoma 1745
standardisation 645, 66, 802, 87 n.94, 87 n.99, 191
Steenbock, Harry 203
sterilisation 250 n.189
Sun Bathers 21719, 218
Sun Bathing Review 21317, 214, 215
‘The Sun Has Got His Hat On’ 2578
sun starvation 192, 205
sun towers 133 n.80
sunbathing 29, 34, 231, 242 n.98, 249 n.172
sunbeds 22, 254
sunburn see solar erythema
sunlight see light
‘Sunlight and Health’ 16, 25, 8, 910, 1516
Sunlight League 33, 34, 109, 2245, 230
sunscreen 187 n.161, 239 n.51, 254, 260 n.24
suntan 1112, 39, 1908
acclimation chart 62
as bodily damage 253
colour of 248 n.165
colour value 22730
depth of 253
kinds of 197
as a marker of healing 52, 62
photogenic 21718
and racial identity 2313
regulation 254
standardisation 191
transgressive 2304
supernatural 169
Surén, Hans 234, 249 n.186
Surrealist artists 117
suspensory belts 16
Switzerland 234, 62, 226
syphilis 244 n.115
Talbot, Francis 202
tanning see suntan
tanorexia 254
technology of light therapy 22, 45 n.84
Tegner, Rudolph 18, 1819
Thedering, Franz 199, 200, 213, 234, 253
therapeutic photography 127 n.11
Thermal Syndicate 177 n.4
The Times 16, 8, 15
tobacco 205
‘towards the light’ 43 n.48
transgressive suntan 2304
transillumination 160, 163
transparency 15960, 1624
Treloar Hospital 12, 15, 31, 32, 36, 367, 104, 113, 1212, 130 n.50, 2223, 223
see also Gauvain, Henry
trials of light therapy 8, 657
Troup, William Annandale 165, 1667
tuberculosis 10, 1213, 145
see also lupus vulgaris
Tudor-Hart, Edith 904, 10911, 120, 123, 132 n.69, 132 n.72, 158, 182 n.76, 216, 21617, 217
Tuke, Henry Scott 17
tumours 131 n.58, 145
tungsten arc lamps 113, 114, 115, 153, 1612
Turning Solaria 71, 85 n.70, 87 n.91
Tyndall, John 82 n.5
ultraviolet lamps 22, 106, 148, 165
University College Hospital 7
vaginal lamps 241 n.78
Vaughan, Kathleen 207
Vaughan-Cowell, Myrtle 120, 165, 1712, 245 n.131
vibrators 16
violet ray machines 167, 168
virility 227
visual culture of light therapy 1417, 212, 1401, 14555
Vita glass 41 n.7, 118, 134 n.96, 225
vitamin D 6, 35, 2034, 254
vitamins 23, 30
Vi-tan mercury vapour lamp 22, 1378, 138, 1503, 151, 158, 1645, 16870, 172
Vogel, Hermann Wilhelm 101, 160, 199
Walsham, Hugh 1434
Warwick, Alan 219
Weinbren, Maurice 65, 155
Westminster Engineering Company 171, 172
White Oak School Hospital 122, 124
Widmark, Erik Johan 83 n.18
Wilson, Justina 78
women 252
women’s disorders 207
Woodruff, Charles 231
X rays 89, 42 n.38, 97, 1425, 15960, 165, 1667, 169, 210, 250 n.189

Soaking up the rays

Light therapy and visual culture in Britain, c. 1890–1940

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