Efficiency and academic freedom
in A history of the University of Manchester 1973–90

Endless arguments arose as to whether the new and increasingly formal system of management would actually make the University more effective. It provided machinery for procuring a general level of efficiency, keeping everyone up to the mark by constant scrutiny, and seeking to motivate academics by material rewards and gains in status. In abeyance was the liberal notion that academics should be their own managers, doing their own work with some encouragement from colleagues and friends.

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