Theoretical background
in Implementing international environmental agreements in Russia

This chapter provides more detail on the theoretical debate about the implementation of international environmental agreements, leading up to a more individualised approach to the issues under investigation here. The first section seeks to place the implementation literature in a wider theoretical context, asking how the two major theoretical approaches to international relations, realism and liberalism, see the role of institutions in the implementation of international agreements. The second section addresses the ‘whats’, ‘whys’, and ‘hows’ of the implementation debate, focusing in particular on the interface between the concepts of implementation, effectiveness, and compliance. The third section sums up some major lessons from implementation of environmental agreements in post-Communist societies. The fourth section examines the background and the experience of implementation in post-Communist states.


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