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Document collections

Auerswald, P. and Auerswald, D., The Kosovo Conflict: A Diplomatic History Through Documents (Cambridge, Kluwer Law International, 2000).

Weller, M., The Crisis in Kosovo 1989–1999: International Documents and Analysis, Volume 1 (Cambridge, Documents and Analysis Publishing, 1999).

Official reports

Les enseignement du Kosovo, French Ministry of Defence, November 1999. Website reference

Kosovo: Vols I–II, House of Commons Select Committee on Foreign Affairs (London, The Stationery Office, 2000).

Kosovo: Lessons from the Crisis, UK Ministry of Defence (London, The Stationery Office, 2000).

Report to Congress: Kosovo/Operation Allied Force After-Action Report, US Department of Defense (Washington DC, US Government Printing Office, 2000).

Lessons of Kosovo: Vols I–II, House of Commons Select Committee on Defence (London, The Stationery Office, 2000).

Lord Robertson of Port Ellen, Kosovo: An Account of the Crisis, UK Ministry of Defence, October 1999. Website reference

Lord Robertson of Port Ellen, Kosovo One Year On: Achievement and Challenge, NATO, March 2000. Website reference

Secondary academic sources

The nature of armed conflict

Baylis, J. et al., Contemporary Strategy: Theories and Concepts (London, Croom Helm, 1987).

Black, J., War: Past, Present and Future (New York, St. Martin’s Press, 2000).

Freedman, L., The Revolution in Strategic Affairs (Adelphi Paper 318) (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1998).

Freedman, L. (ed.), Strategic Coercion: Concepts and Cases (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1998).

Gacek, C., The Logic of Force: The Dilemma of Limited War in American Foreign Policy (New York, Columbia University Press, 1994).

Handel, M., Masters of War: Classical Strategic Thought (3rd edition) (London, Frank Cass, 2001).

Ignatieff, M., Virtual War: Kosovo and Beyond (London, Chatto and Windus, 2000).

Osgood, R., Limited War: The Challenge to American Strategy (Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1957).

Conflict in South East Europe

Anzulovic, B., Heavenly Serbia: From Myth to Genocide (London, Hurst and Co., 1999).

Bokovoy, M. et al. (eds), State–Society Relations in Yugoslavia 1945–1992 (Basingstoke, Macmillan, 1997).

Cohen, L., Broken Bonds: Yugoslavia’s Disintegration and Balkan Politics in Transition (Boulder, Westview, 1995).

Crampton, R., The Balkans since the Second World War (London, Longman, 2002).

Crampton, R., Eastern Europe in the Twentieth Century (London, Routledge, 1994).

Dyker, D. and Vejvoda, I. (eds), Yugoslavia and After: A Study in Fragmentation, Despair and Rebirth (London, Longman, 1996).

Glenny, M., The Balkans 1804–1999: Nationalism, War and the Great Powers (London, Granta, 1999).

Holbrooke, R., To End a War (New York, The Modern Library, 1999).

Jelavich, B., History of the Balkans: Twentieth Century (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1985).

Judah, T., The Serbs: History, Myth and the Destruction of Yugoslavia (New Haven, Yale University Press, 1997).

Larrabee, F. S. (ed.), The Volatile Powder Keg: Balkan Security after the Cold War (Washington DC, The American University Press, 1994).

Lukic, R. and Lynch, A., Europe from the Balkans to the Urals: The Disintegration of Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1996).

Magas, B. and Zanic, I., The War in Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina 1991–1995 (London, Frank Cass, 2001).

Owen, D., Balkan Odyssey (London, Victor Gollancz, 1995).

Ramet, S., Balkan Babel: The Disintegration of Yugoslavia from the Death of Tito to the War for Kosovo (Boulder, Westview, 1999).

Schöpflin, G., Politics in Eastern Europe 1945–1992 (Oxford, Blackwell, 1993).

Simms, B., Unfinest Hour: Britain and the Destruction of Bosnia (London, Penguin, 2001).

Woodward, S., Balkan Tragedy: Chaos and Dissolution After the Cold War (Washington DC, Brookings Institution, 1995).

The Kosovo conflict

After Milosevic: A Practical Agenda for Lasting Balkans Peace (Brussels, International Crisis Group, 2001).

Ali, T. (ed.), Masters of the Universe? NATO’s Balkan Crusade (London, Verso, 2000).

Allin, D. et al., What Status for Kosovo? (Chaillot Paper 50) (Paris, Institute for Security Studies, Western European Union, 2001).

Booth, K. (ed.), The Kosovo Tragedy: The Human Rights Dimensions (London, Frank Cass, 2001).

Buckley, M. and Cummings, S., Kosovo: Perceptions of War and Its Aftermath (London, Continuum, 2001).

Buckley, W. (ed.), Kosovo: Contending Voices on Balkan Interventions (Grand Rapids MI, William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 2000).

Daalder, I. and O’Hanlon, M., Winning Ugly: NATO’s War to Save Kosovo (Washington DC, Brookings Institution, 2000).

Duijzings, G., Religion and the Politics of Identity in Kosovo (London, Hurst and Co., 2000).

Hammond, P. and Herman, E. (eds), Degraded Capability: The Media and the Kosovo Crisis (London, Pluto, 2000).

Humanitarian Law Violations in Kosovo (New York, Human Rights Watch, 1998).

Judah, T., Kosovo: War and Revenge (New Haven, Yale University Press, 2000).

Kosovo: The Evidence (London, Amnesty International, 1998).

The Kosovo Report: Conflict, International Response, Lessons Learned (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2000).

Leurdijk, D. and Zandee, D., Kosovo: From Crisis to Crisis (Aldershot, Ashgate, 2001).

Martin, P. and Brawley, M. (eds), Alliance Politics, Kosovo, and NATO’s War: Allied Force or Forced Allies? (Basingstoke, Palgrave, 2000).

Malcolm, N., Kosovo: A Short History (Basingstoke, Papermac, 1998).

Mertus, J., Kosovo: How Myths and Truths Started a War (Berkeley, University of California Press, 1999).

Prifti, P., Confrontation in Kosova: The Albanian–Serb Struggle, 1969–1999 (New York, Columbia University Press, 1999).

Rezun, M., Europe’s Nightmare: The Struggle for Kosovo (Westport, Praeger, 2001).

Roberts, A., ‘NATO’s “humanitarian war” over Kosovo’, Survival, 41:3 (1999), 102–23.

Schnabel, A. and Thakur, R. (eds), Kosovo and the Challenge of Humanitarian Intervention: Selective Indignation, Collective Action, and International Citizenship (Tokyo, United Nations University Press, 2000).

Schwartz, S., Kosovo: Background to a War (London, Anthem Press, 2000).

Spillman, K. and Krause, J. (eds), Kosovo: Lessons Learned for International Cooperative Security (Bern, Peter Lang, 2000).

Thomas, R., Serbia under Milosevic: Politics in the 1990s (London, Hurst and Co., 1999).

Vickers, M., Between Serb and Albanian: A History of Kosovo (London, Hurst and Co., 1998).

Waller, M. et al. (eds), Kosovo: The Politics of Delusion (London, Frank Cass, 2001).

Weymouth, T. and Henig, S. (eds), The Kosovo Crisis: The Last American War in Europe? (London, Reuters, 2001).


Buzan, B., People, States and Fear: An Agenda for International Security Studies in the Post-Cold War Era (New York, Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1991).

Buzan, B. et al., Security: A New Framework for Analysis (Boulder, Lynne Rienner, 1998).

Freedman, L., ‘International security: changing targets’, Foreign Policy, 110 (1998), 48–65.

Terry, S., ‘“Deepening” and “widening”: an analysis of security definitions in the 1990s’, Journal of Military and Strategic Studies, (Autumn 1999). Website reference

Intervention, sovereignty and ‘stateness’

Abiew, F., The Evolution of the Doctrine and Practice of Humanitarian Intervention (The Hague, Kluwer Law International, 1999).

Bull, H. (ed.), Intervention in World Politics (Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1984).

Chesterman, S., Just War or Just Peace? Humanitarian Intervention and International Law (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2001).

Chomsky, N., A New Generation Draws the Line: Kosovo, East Timor and the Standards of the West (London, Verso, 2000).

Chomsky, N., The New Military Humanism: Lessons from Kosovo (London, Pluto, 1999).

Coker, C. (ed.), The United States, Western Europe and Military Intervention Overseas (London, Macmillan, 1987).

Connaughton, R., Military Intervention and Peacekeeping: The Reality (Aldershot, Ashgate, 2001).

Connaughton, R., Military Intervention in the 1990s: A New Logic of War (London, Routledge, 1992).

Dorman, A. and Otte, T., Military Intervention: From Gunboat Diplomacy to Humanitarian Intervention (Aldershot, Dartmouth, 1995).

Ero, C. and Long, S., ‘Humanitarian intervention: a new role for the United Nations?’, International Peacekeeping, 2:2 (1995), 140–56.

Fowler, M. and Bunck, J., ‘What constitutes the sovereign state?’, Review of International Studies, 22:4 (1996), 381–404.

Freedman, L. (ed.), Military Intervention in European Conflicts (Oxford, Blackwell, 1994).

Glennon, M., Limits of Law, Prerogatives of Power: Interventionism After Kosovo (London, Palgrave, 2001).

Guicherd, C., ‘International law and the war in Kosovo’, Survival, 41:2 (1999), 19–34.

Keren, M. and Sylvan, D. (eds), International Intervention: Sovereignty versus Responsibility (London, Frank Cass, 2002).

Levite, A., et al. (eds), Foreign Military Intervention: The Dynamics of Protracted Conflict (New York, Columbia University Press, 1992).

Littman, M., Kosovo: Law and Diplomacy (London, Centre for Policy Studies, 1999).

Lyons, G. and Mastanduno, M. (eds), Beyond Westphalia? State Sovereignty and International Intervention (Baltimore, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995).

Mazarr, M., ‘The military dilemmas of humanitarian intervention’, Security Dialogue, 24:2 (1993), 151–62.

Mayall, J. (ed.), The New Interventionism 1991–1994: United Nations Experience in Cambodia, former Yugoslavia and Somalia (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1996).

Morgenthau, H., ‘To intervene or not to intervene’, Foreign Affairs, 45:3 (1967), 425–36.

Mott, W., ‘The paradoxes of intervention’, Defence Analysis, 12:2 (1996), 189–204.

Murphy, S., Humanitarian Intervention: The United Nations in an Evolving World Order (Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1996).

Ortega, M., Military Intervention and the European Union (Chaillot Paper 45) (Paris, Institute for Security Studies, Western European Union, March 2001).

Ramsbotham, O. and Woodhouse, T., Humanitarian Intervention in Contemporary Conflict: A Reconceptualization (Cambridge, Polity Press, 1996).

The Responsibility to Protect (Ottawa, International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty, December 2001).

The Responsibility to Protect: Research, Bibliography and Background (Ottawa, International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty, December 2001).

Reus-Smit, C., ‘Human rights and the social construction of sovereignty’, Review of International Studies, 27:4 (2001), 519–38.

Stern, E. (ed.), The Limits of Military Intervention (Beverly Hills, Sage, 1977).

Tomes, R., ‘Operation Allied Force and the legal basis for humanitarian interventions’, Parameters, 30:1 (2000), 8–50.

Tomuschat, C. (ed.), Kosovo and the International Community (The Hague, Kluwer Law International, 2002).

Walter, B. and Snyder, J. (eds), Civil Wars, Insecurity, and Intervention (New York, Columbia University Press, 1999).

Weber, C., ‘Reconsidering statehood: examining the sovereignty/intervention boundary’, Review of International Studies, 18:3 (1992), 199–216.

Weiss, T., Military-Civilian Interactions: Intervening in Humanitarian Crises (Lanham, Rowman and Littlefield, 1999).

Wheeler, N., Saving Strangers: Humanitarian Intervention in International Society (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2000).

Ethics of intervention

Carment, D. and Harvey, F., Using Force to Prevent Ethnic Violence: An Evaluation of Theory and Evidence (Westport, Praeger, 2001).

Coates, A., The Ethics of War (Manchester, Manchester University Press, 1997).

Forbes, I. and Hoffman, M. (eds), Political Theory, International Relations and the Ethics of Intervention (Basingstoke, St. Martin’s Press, 1993).

Heidenrich, J., How to Prevent Genocide: A Guide for Policymakers, Scholars, and the Concerned Citizen (Westport, Praeger, 2001).

Hoffman, S., et al., The Ethics and Politics of Humanitarian Intervention (Notre Dame IN, University of Notre Dame Press, 1996).

Liotta, P., ‘Towards a bad end: the ethics of intervention in the former Yugoslavia’, European Security, 7:4 (1998), 33–68.

Phillips, R. and Cady, D., Humanitarian Intervention: Just War vs. Pacifism (London, Rowman and Littlefield, 1996).

Regan, R., Just War: Principles and Cases (Washington DC, The Catholic University Press of America, 1996).

Rodley, N. (ed.), To Loose the Bands of Wickedness: International Intervention in Defence of Human Rights (London, Brassey’s, 1992).

Smith, K. and Light, M. (eds), Ethics and Foreign Policy (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2001).

Nationalism, self-determination and ethnic conflict

Bell-Fialkoff, A., Ethnic Cleansing (Basingstoke, Macmillan, 1996).

Bose, S., Bosnia after Dayton: Nationalist Partition and International Intervention (London, Hurst and Co., 2002).

Bugajski, J., Nations in Turmoil: Conflict and Cooperation in Eastern Europe (Boulder, Westview, 1993).

Denitch, B., Ethnic Nationalism: The Tragic Death of Yugoslavia (Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1994).

Guibernau, M., Nationalisms: The Nation-State and Nationalism in the Twentieth Century (London, Polity Press, 1996).

Gurr, T. R. and Harff, B., Ethnic Conflict in World Politics (Boulder, Westview, 1994).

Hobsbawm, E. J., Nations and Nationalism since 1780: Programme, Myth and Reality (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1992).

Huntington, S. P., The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order (London, Touchstone Books, 1997).

Hutchinson, J. and Smith, A. D. (eds), Ethnicity (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1996).

Hutchinson, J. and Smith, A. D. (eds), Nationalism (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1994).

Ignatieff, M., The Warrior’s Honor: Ethnic War and the Modern Conscience (London, Vintage, 1999).

Kumar, R., Divide and Fall? Bosnia in the Annals of Partition (London, Verso, 1999).

Latawski, P. (ed.), Contemporary Nationalism in East Central Europe (Basingstoke, Macmillan, 1995).

Opello, W. and Rosow, S., The Nation-State and Global Order: A Historical Introduction to Contemporary Politics (Boulder, Lynne Rienner, 1999).

Pavkovic, A., The Fragmentation of Yugoslavia: Nationalism in a Multinational State (Basingstoke, Macmillan, 1997).

Poulton, H., The Balkans: Minorities and States in Conflict (London, Minority Rights Publications, 1991).

Seton-Watson, H., Nations and States: An Enquiry into the Origins of Nations and the Politics of Nationalism (London, Methuen, 1977).

Shehadi, K., Ethnic Self-Determination and the Break-up of States (Adelphi Paper 283) (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1993).

Smith, A. D., The Nation in History: Historiographical Debates About Ethnicity and Nationalism (London, Polity Press, 2000).

Smith, A. D., Nations and Nationalism in a Global Era (London, Polity Press, 1995).

Snow, D., Uncivil Wars: International Security and the New Internal Conflicts (Boulder, Lynne Rienner, 1996).

Stack, J. and Hebron, L. (eds), The Ethnic Entanglement: Conflict and Intervention in World Politics (Westport, Praeger, 1999).

Stavenhagen, R., Ethnic Conflicts and the Nation-State (Basingstoke, Macmillan, 1996).

Sugar, P. and Lederer, I. (eds), Nationalism in Eastern Europe (Seattle, University of Washington Press, 1971).

Democracy and peace-building

Brown, M. et al. (eds), Debating the Democratic Peace (Cambridge, Mass, The MIT Press, 1996).

Burg, S., War or Peace? Nationalism, Democracy, and American Foreign Policy in Post-Communist Europe (New York, New York University Press, 1996).

Cordell, K. (ed), Ethnicity and Democratisation in the New Europe (London, Routledge, 1999).

Dunne, M. and Bonazzi, T. (eds), Citizenship and Rights in Multicultural Societies (Keele, Keele University Press, 1995).

Liebich, A. et al. (eds), Citizenship East and West (London, Kegan Paul International, 1995).

MacMillan, J., On Liberal Peace: Democracy, War and the International Order (London, Tauris, 1998).

Post-Cold War NATO and European security

Bronstone, A., European Security into the Twenty-First Century (Aldershot, Ashgate, 2000).

Carr, F. and Ifantis, K., NATO in the New European Security Order (Basingstoke, Macmillan, 1996).

David, C-P. and Levesque, J. (eds), The Future of NATO: Enlargement, Russia, and European Security (Quebec City, McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1999).

Dutkiewicz, P. and Jackson, R., NATO Looks East (Westport, Praeger, 1998).

Gordon, P. (ed.), NATO’s Transformation: The Changing Shape of the Atlantic Alliance (Lanham, Rowman and Littlefield, 1997).

Grayson, G., Strange Bedfellows: NATO Marches East (Lanham, University Press of America, 1999).

Hodge, C. (ed.), Redefining European Security (New York, Garland Publishing, 1999).

Kay, S., NATO and the Future of European Security (Lanham, Rowman and Littlefield, 1998).

Michta, A. (ed.), America’s New Allies: Poland, Hungary, and the Czech Republic in NATO (Seattle, University of Washington Press, 1999).

Papacosma, S. V. et al., NATO after Fifty Years (Wilmington, SR Books, 2001).

Park, W. and Rees, G. W. (eds), Rethinking Security in Post-Cold War Europe (London, Longman, 1998).

Sandler, T., The Political Economy of NATO: Past, Present, and into the 21st Century (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1999).

Thompson, K. (ed.), NATO and the Changing World Order (Lanham, University Press of America, 1996).

Wyllie, J., European Security in the New Political Environment (London, Longman, 1997).

European security identity and transatlantic relations

Brenner, M., Terms of Engagement: The United States and the European Security Identity (Westport, Praeger, 1998).

Cornish, P., Partnership in Crisis: The US, Europe and the Fall and Rise of NATO (London, Pinter, 1997).

Duke, S., The Elusive Quest for European Security: From EDC to CFSP (Basingstoke, Macmillan, 2000).

Eliassen, K. (ed.), Foreign and Security Policy in the European Union (London, Sage, 1998).

Kupchan, C. (ed.), Atlantic Security: Contending Visions (Washington DC, Council on Foreign Relations, 1998).

Vanhoonacker, S., The Bush Administration (1989–1993) and the Development of a European Security Identity (Aldershot, Ashgate, 2001).

Russia and NATO

Adomeit, H., ‘Russia as a “great power” in world affairs: images and reality’, International Affairs, 71:1 (1995), 35–68.

Antonenko, O., ‘Russia, NATO and European security after Kosovo’, Survival, 41:4 (1999-2000), 124–44.

Arbatov, A. et al. (eds), Russia and the West: The 21st Century Security Environment (London, M. E. Sharpe, 1999).

Baranovsky, V. (ed.), Russia and Europe: The Emerging Security Agenda (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1997).

Braithwaite, R., ‘Russian realities and western policy’, Survival, 36:3 (1994), 11–27.

Buszynski, L., Russian Foreign Policy after the Cold War (Westport, Praeger, 1996).

Cimbala, S. (ed.), The Russian Military into the Twenty-First Century (London, Frank Cass, 2001).

Dick, C. J., How Far Can the West Afford to Ignore Russia? (Camberley, Conflict Studies Research Centre, 1999).

Goodby, J. (ed.), Regional Conflicts: The Challenge to US-Russian Co-operation (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1995).

Levitin, O., ‘Inside Moscow’s Kosovo muddle’, Survival, 42:1 (2000), 130–40.

Sherr, J. and Main, S., Russian and Ukrainian Perceptions of Events in Yugoslavia (Camberley, Conflict Studies Research Centre, 1999).

Smith, M. A., Russian Thinking on European Security After Kosovo (Camberley, Conflict Studies Research Centre, 1999).

Tikhomirov, V. (ed.), Russia After Yeltsin (Aldershot, Ashgate, 2001).

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