Index
in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change

Index

Act of Free Choice (West Irian), 81
Adoula, C., 85, 118, 121
Afghanistan, 38n.50, 56, 64
aggression, 78, 103, 109, 132, 135, 194
Agricultural Relief and Rehabilitation in Kampuchea (ARRK), 193
Akashi, Y., 191, 199
Albright, M., 164
Algeria, 50, 52
Algiers Charter, 61
Allied Powers, 49
Alvor Agreement, 1556
American Security Council, 171
Amnesty International, 59, 192
Andropov, Y., 56
Angola, 9, 33, 64, 90, 92, 93, 115, 122, 15578, 218
Joint Political-Military Commission (CCPM), 159, 168
Secretary-General’s Special Representative in Angola, 1612, 164, 170
UN Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM), see under peacekeeping
UN Humanitarian Assistance Coordination Unit (UCAH), 1634
UN Observer Mission in Angola (MONUA), see under peacekeeping
Anstee, M., 161, 163, 166
Apollo Soyuz Test Project, 55
Arab League (League of Arab States), 57
Argentina, 58, 59, 112, 113
assertive multilateralism, 62
Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN), 37n.33, 57, 1804, 186, 195, 201
ASEAN Appeal, 182
atomic bomb, 45
Australia, 1846, 193, 198, 215
Australian Plan, 185, 187, 189
Bandung Conference, 48
Bay of Pigs expedition, 46
Belgium, 1009, 11415, 11920, 140
Berlin crisis, 45, 51
Berlin Wall, 46, 62
Beye, A., 92, 1668
Bicesse Peace Accords, 159, 161, 163, 1657, 170
BLDP (Cambodia), 200
Bolivia, 138
Bosnia-Herzegovina, 7, 25, 26, 27, 889, 923, 155, 212, 216
Botswana, 1567
Boutros-Ghali, B., 27, 90, 200
Braudel, F., 15
Brazil, 58, 91, 166, 169
Brazzaville Conference, 68n.23
Bretton Woods Institutions, 63
Brezhnev, L., 37n.34, 536
Britain, 59, 66, 93, 113
Angola conflict, 164, 171, 173
Cambodia conflict, 184, 1879, 192, 196
colonial power, 478
Congo conflict, 103, 116, 11921
Cyprus conflict, 1306, 1401, 14650
Rhodesia, 52
sanctions, 60
Suez crisis, 77
Bunche, R., 105, 113
Burma, 48
Bush, G., 62
Cairo Conference, 56
Cambodia, 7, 9, 33, 81, 86, 8990, 923, 115, 122, 144, 160, 162, 165, 168, 172, 179209, 216, 218
Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea (CGDK), 1814, 190, 1934
Democratic Kampuchea, 180
Draft Agreement of the Permanent Five, 189, 1956
Framework Document of the Permanent Five, 1889, 1946
Interim Joint Administration, 200
International Committee on the Reconstruction of Cambodia, 198
International Conference on Kampuchea, 181
International Control and Supervision Commission, 184
People’s Republic of Kampuchea (PRK), 181
Secretary-General’s Special Representative in Cambodia, 1889, 200
Supreme National Council (SNC), 92, 18690, 1968
UN Advance Mission in Cambodia (UNAMIC), see under peacekeeping
UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC), see under peacekeeping
Cameroon, 118
Canada, 77, 184
capitalist / liberal doctrine, 62
Caracas Declaration (of the OAS), 45
CARE International, 19
Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict, 2
Carter, J., 53, 56, 59, 86, 156, 195
Casablanca group, 114, 11718
Castro, F., 46
Central Treaty Organization (CENTO), 45, 134
Ceylon, 48, 103, 107, 110, 114, 118
Chernenko, K., 56
Chile, 55, 59, 87
China, 44, 49, 51, 53, 54, 56, 58, 63
Cambodia conflict, 1804, 1879, 1926, 201
human rights, 86, 184, 195
non-intervention, 86, 91, 93, 195
see also Taiwan
civil society, 63, 67, 86, 171, 192, 202, 215
Clerides, G., 131
Clinton, W. J., 62
CNN, 19
Cold War, 436, 536, 65
blocs, 456, 56, 78, 80, 834, 105, 110, 121, 133, 137, 140, 149
détente, 53, 56
collective security, 22, 65, 7880, 83, 215
Colombo powers, 48
colonialism, 478
complex emergencies, 216
Conference on International Economic Cooperation (CIEC), 58
Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE), 55, 59, 63, 86
see also Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe
Congo, The, 7, 9, 26, 33, 48, 77, 79, 813, 85, 87, 92, 1009, 137, 139, 1412, 14850, 1556, 158, 160, 1656, 183, 191, 199, 21213, 217
Collège des Universitaires, 110
Congolese National Army (ANC), 109, 112, 115
Conciliation Commission, 111, 113, 115, 117, 1212
Constitutional Crisis, 10912, 118
Fundamental Law (Loi Fundamentale), 108, 117, 119
mercenary question, 105, 11617
UN Operation in the Congo (ONUC), see under peacekeeping
UN Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC), see under peacekeeping
consent, principle of, 23, 31, 79, 834, 92, 94, 108, 115, 119, 14750, 165, 210
Contact Group, 1567
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, 52
Cooperation Committee for Cambodia (CCC), 193
Coquilhatville Conference, 128n.100
Costa Rica, 64
Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON), 45, 180
Cox, R., 1415, 214
Croatia, 22, 25, 28
Cuba, 46, 57, 91, 156, 158, 161
Cuban missile crisis, 46
Cyprus, 9, 33, 77, 79, 813, 87, 13054, 1556, 158, 160, 166, 191, 212
Secretary-General’s Special Representative in Cyprus, 1425
UN Mediator in Cyprus, 1413
UN Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP), see under peacekeeping
Czechoslovakia, 54, 55, 62, 110
Dayal, R., 113
decolonisation, 468, 50, 62, 65, 802, 100, 106, 121, 132, 134
Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples, 52
de Cuéllar, J., 184
de Gaulle, C., 46, 133
democracy, discourse of, 645
Deng Xiao Ping, 195
Denktaş, R., 135
Dominican Republic, 22, 77, 80, 82, 83, 87
domino theory, 45
Donini, A., 59
dos Santos, J. E., 159, 161
Eastern Slavonia, 81
East Timor, 7, 82, 21516
Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), 37n.33, 216
economic crises, 57, 58, 61, 66
Ecuador, 103
Egypt, 48, 49, 78
El Salvador, 7, 64, 90, 92
enosis, 131, 133
Esquipulas II, 64
Estoril, Protocol of, 159
European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), 45
European Economic Community (EEC), 45
European Union (EU), 62, 63, 66, 169
Evans, G., 185, 187
‘Evil Empire’, 56
failed states, 216
Falk, R., 21314
Finland, 80, 144
FNLA (Angola), 156
Ford, G., 53
Fourth World, 58
France, 46, 47, 53, 56, 66, 106
Cambodia conflict, 179, 182, 184, 18790, 192, 196, 199
colonial power, 478
Congo conflict, 103, 107, 11011, 114, 11921, 13940
Cyprus conflict, 133, 1412, 147, 212
Rwanda conflict, 89
Suez crisis, 77, 139
FUNCINPEC (Cambodia), 181, 189, 200
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), 60, 63
see also World Trade Organization
Geneva Conference, 179, 184
Germany, 44, 46, 59, 62, 66
Ghana, 49, 105, 108
Gizenga, A., 112, 116, 118, 120
glasnost, 61
Gorbachev, M., 56, 61, 62
governance, 3, 10n.13, 63, 82, 1456, 149, 1867, 21516, 218
Gramsci, A., 16
Greece, 76, 1305, 14750
Group of 7 (G7), 66, 72n.76
Group of 77, 601
Guardian, 192
Guatemala, 512, 65, 90
Guinea, 105, 112
Gulf War I (Iran–Iraq), 64
Gulf War II, 65
Gyani, P., 142
Haiti, 28, 41n.96, 65, 88, 91, 93
Halo Trust, 163
Hammarskjöld, D., 22, 24, 779, 823, 101, 103, 10510, 112, 11415, 118, 1212, 1489, 165, 199
Harbottle, M., 144
Hare, P., 171
hegemony, 1617, 62, 667, 171, 214, 21617
Helsinki Final Act, 55
Heritage Foundation, 171
historical structural approach, 8, 1417, 35n.15, 214
historicism, 7, 13n.39
holocaust, 44
Honduras, 65
humanitarian intervention, 2, 6, 23, 33, 65, 8990, 923, 155
human rights, 3, 10n.12, 12n.35, 21, 30, 52, 5860, 634, 667, 81, 83, 8690, 93, 1379, 148, 155, 1635, 1703, 184, 1916, 2012, 21011, 214, 217
African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights, 87
American Convention on Human Rights, 87
Convention against Genocide, 194
International Conference on Human Rights, 58
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 58
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 58
UN Commission of Human Rights, 5960, 1923
World Conference on Human Rights, 64
Hungary, 512, 62, 166, 169
Hun Sen, 182, 185, 187, 199, 201
hydrogen bomb, 45
ideology, 48, 214
Ileo, J., 110, 117
impartiality, principle of, 23, 31, 85, 94, 106, 165, 188
India, 48, 49, 77, 11415, 184
Indonesia, 48, 57, 76, 82, 85, 182, 199, 215
institutions, 14, 16, 35n.13, 21415
inter-continental ballistic missile (ICBM), 45
inter-governmental organizations (IGOs), 18, 51, 57, 66, 87
International Commission of Jurists, 192
International Peace Academy, 21
International Society for Human Rights, 171
Iran, 64
Iraq, 57, 60, 64, 65, 89
Ireland, Northern, 52
Iron Curtain, 44, 46
Israel, 49, 87
Italy, 103, 106, 107, 113
Jakarta Informal Meetings, 1825, 187, 190, 202
Japan, 44, 66, 184, 189, 193, 1989
Johnson, L., 53, 54
Kalonji, A., 105
Kampuchea, see Cambodia
Kasai, 101, 1056, 109
Kasavubu, J., 48, 101, 102, 10910, 11213, 11617
Kashmir, 76, 77, 86
Katanga, 81, 85, 101, 1047, 10910, 117, 11922, 141, 199
Keohane, R., 14, 16
Khmer Rouge, 94, 180, 1834, 18690, 192200, 202
Khrushchev, N., 45, 112, 114
Kingsbury, B., 2
Kissinger, H., 58
Kitona Declaration, 121
Knight, A., 1415
Korea, 49, 76
Korean crisis, 38n.54, 51, 60, 65, 78
Koskenpalo, U., 144
Kosovo, 7, 21516
Kosygin, A., 54
KPNLF (Cambodia), 181, 189, 198
Küçük, F., 131
Kuwait, 65
Laos, 1834
League of Arab States (Arab League), 57
League of Nations, 21
Lebanon, 77, 79, 82, 857
Le Monde, 192
Le Peuple, 48
liberalism, 11n.19, 14
Liberia, 90, 92, 114, 118
London Agreement, 130, 132
Lon Nol, 180
Lumumba, P., 1012, 105, 10710, 11217, 141
Lusaka Protocol, 1667, 171
Makarios, M., 1312, 141
Malawi, 170
Mao Tse Tung, 45, 180
Marshall Plan, 45
Marxism-Leninism, 55
McCarthyism, 45
Médecins Sans Frontières, 163
media (mass), 1819, 63, 67, 1923
mediation, 27, 1413, 159, 168, 185
Mexico, 58
mine clearance, 170, 197
Mobutu, S., 107, 110, 11214, 117
Monroe Doctrine, 37n.34, 71n.69
Monrovia group, 118
Morocco, 136
Mozambique, 90, 92, 156
MPLA (Angola), 156, 15860, 163, 1689
multilateralism, 14, 217
Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD), 54
Myanmar, see Burma
Namibia, 7, 64, 81, 89, 91, 1568, 164, 169, 216
Nasser, G., 48, 49, 56, 77
national (re)conciliation, 85, 89, 92, 115, 117, 1212, 167, 16970, 185, 191
negotiation, 27
Nehru, J., 49
Netherlands, The, 59, 82, 85
neutrality, principle of, 23, 31, 79, 835, 94, 106, 122, 14950, 165, 186
New International Economic Order (NIEO), 58, 61
New Zealand, 91
Nicaragua, 65
Nigeria, 91, 11718
Nixon, R., 53
Nkrumah, K., 489
Nyerere, J., 157
non-alignment, 46, 62, 65, 80, 132, 137
Non-aligned Movement (NAM), 489, 567, 111, 136, 184
non-governmental organizations (NGOs), 18, 36n.21, 51, 59, 63, 64, 66, 91, 163, 1923
non-intervention, 3, 10n.14, 32, 36n.19, 54, 55, 78, 79, 82, 86, 88, 91, 10511, 113, 137, 13941, 143, 146, 172, 189, 1945, 201
non-use of force, principle of, 23, 31, 116
normativity, 36, 10n.15
normative basis of UN action (operationalised), 2932
normative ethics, 4
normative theory, 45
norms (conceptualised), 10n.15, 17, 19
UN Charter and, 19
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), 66
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), 39n.56, 45, 62, 1315, 137, 215
Norway, 140, 143
Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, 54
Operation Desert Storm, 65
Operation Turquoise, 39n.56, 89
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), 63, 66
Organization of African Unity (OAU), 37n.33, 57, 1567, 167, 16970
Organization of American States (OAS), 37n.33, 45, 57, 74n.115, 80, 83
Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), 58
Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), 37n.33, 63
see also Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe
Osorio-Tafall, B., 145
Ottoman Empire, 130, 134
Oxfam–NGO Consortium, 193
Pakistan, 38n.50, 48, 77, 91, 115
Palestine, 767
Paris, R., 8
Paris Accords, 185, 1901, 1934, 1968, 200
Paris Conference, 184, 186, 190, 202
Partnership for Development in Kampuchea (PADEK), 193
peacebuilding, 27
peace enforcement, see under peacekeeping
peaceful settlement of conflicts, 2
peacekeeping, 21, 77, 143
Caribbean Peacekeeping Forces, 37n.33
classical peacekeeping, 24
expanded peacekeeping, 25
functions of, 301, 83, 92, 1445, 158, 160, 1623, 1689, 173, 198, 210
intra-state peacekeeping (notion of), 246, 79
multi-dimensional peacekeeping, 25
observer/fact-finding missions, 234
peace enforcement, 234, 27
‘peacekeeping environment’, 8, 28
peacekeeping ‘forces’, 23
second generation peacekeeping, 25
UN peacekeeping, 645, 216
classical doctrine of, 223, 25, 31, 78, 83, 121, 149
Mission of the Representative of the Secretary-General in the Dominican Republic (DOMREP), 22
Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations, 22
UN Advance Mission in Cambodia (UNAMIC), 197
UN Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM), 64, 15578
UN Assistance Mission to Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL), 216
UN Civilian Police Support Group (UNPSG), 22
UN Emergency Force (UNEF), 24
UN Good Offices Mission in Afghanistan and Pakistan (UNGOMAP), 64
Unified Task Force in Somalia (UNITAF), 25
UN Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL), 856
UN Iran–Iraq Military Observer Group (UNIIMOG), 64
UN Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO), 22
UN Observation Group in Lebanon (UNOGIL), 77
UN Observer Group in Central America (ONUCA), 64
UN Observer Mission in Angola (MONUA), 155, 172
UN Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM), 25, 39n.56, 90
UN Operation in the Congo (ONUC), 28, 85, 10029, 141, 143, 148, 21213
UN Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC), 217
UN Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP), 39n.61, 13054
UN Special Committee on the Balkans (UNSCOB), 23, 76
UN Temporary Executive Authority in West Irian (UNTEA), 39n.61, 82, 96n.15
UN Transitional Administration for Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Sirmium (UNTAES), 25
UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC), 144, 179209
UN Transition Assistance Group (UNTAG), 64, 91, 157, 160
wider peacekeeping, 23, 25
working definition of, 256
peacemaking, 27, 143
Pearson, L., 22, 77
perestroika, 61
Plaza, G., 142
Poland, 62, 102, 109, 110, 113
Pol Pot, 180, 1925
Portugal, 155, 159, 163, 165, 167
positivism, 5, 11n.22
proxy war, 168
Pugh, M., 26
Quichen, Q., 91
Ramsbotham, O., 26
Ranarridh, N., 201
rationalistic approaches, 14
Ratner, S., 30
Reagan, R., 56, 157
reflective approaches, 14
refugees, 63, 138, 197, 200
Rhodesia, 50, 52, 60, 87, 104, 156
see also Zambia; Zimbabwe
Rikhye, I., 103
Roberts, A., 2
Raoul Wallenberg Institute, 163
Russia, 63, 93, 1667
see also Soviet Union
Rwanda, 39n.56, 41n.96, 8893, 155, 212, 216
sanctions, 28, 60, 65, 93, 121, 1668, 170, 199
San Fransisco Conference, 49, 51
Sao Tome-Principe, 168
Save the Children, 163
Savimbi, J., 159, 167
secessionism, 81, 100, 11920, 1223
self-determination, 2, 55, 81, 89, 193, 196, 201
Senegal, 89
September 11, 21617
Sierra Leone, 212, 216
Sihanouk, N., 17983, 187, 18990, 193, 199200
Sirik Matak, 180
Six-Day War, 57
socio-economic development, 21, 30, 58, 601, 64, 667, 81, 90, 93, 137, 146, 192, 198, 201, 21011, 214
Charter of Economic Rights and Duties of States, 61
Development Decade, 52
Solidarity movement (Poland), 62
Somalia, 19, 24, 25, 8890, 92, 155, 164, 169, 212
Son Sann, 189
South Africa, 38n.50, 49, 60, 87, 1568
Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO), 45
sovereignty, 21, 2930, 52, 545, 64, 789, 812, 104, 115, 11920, 122, 1359, 148, 155, 157, 161, 1723, 1845, 1878, 1901, 194, 196, 201, 210
Declaration on States’ Permanent Sovereignty over Natural Resources, 52
Declaration on the Inadmissibility of Intervention in the Domestic Affairs of States and the Protection of Their Independence and Sovereignty, 52
external vs internal, 30, 82, 88, 91, 93, 111, 117, 201, 211
sovereign equality, 64, 81
Soviet Union, 44, 48
Angola conflict, 156, 1589
Cambodia conflict, 1802, 184, 1869, 1936, 2012
China, 54
coercive regime changes in the Third World, 57
Congo conflict, 10117, 11922, 213
Cyprus conflict, 1323, 135, 137, 13942, 145, 1479, 212
human rights, 612, 1934
intervention in Hungary, 51
invasion of Afghanistan, 56, 64
Korean crisis, 51, 78
NGOs, 59
Suez crisis, 78
see also Russia
Spain, 164
Sputnik, 45
Sri Lanka, see Ceylon
Stalin, J., 45, 56
Stegenga, J., 144
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT), 54, 56
Strategic Defence Initiative (SDI), 56
Sudan, 49
Suez crisis, 47, 52, 56, 77, 78, 137, 139
Suharto, 57
Sukarno, 49
SWAPO (Namibia), 1567
Sweden, 59, 73, 80, 144, 163
Swedrelief, 163
Syria, 59
Taiwan, 49, 58, 86
see also China
taksim, 131
Tananarive Conference, 128n.100
Tanzania, 59, 1567
temporary authority, see transitional administration
Thailand, 1801, 183, 189, 197, 199
Thimayya, K., 142
Thorneycroft, P., 134
Times, The, 192
Tito, J., 49
Togo, 118
transitional administration, 7, 81, 89, 92, 115
transnational companies, 63
Trovoada, M., 168
Truman Doctrine, 45
Tshombé, M., 101, 105, 107, 11718, 1201
Tunisia, 103, 107, 110
Tuomija, S., 142
Turkey, 1303, 1356, 138, 14750
Uch Kiman, 191
Union Minière du Haut Catanga, 101
‘unipolar moment’, 62
UNITA (Angola), 94, 156, 15861, 163, 1659, 171, 173
United Arab Republic (UAR), 69n.30, 77, 114, 118
United Nations (UN), 1718, 49
authority of, 31, 66, 789, 835, 913, 122, 146, 167, 173, 1856, 18891, 199, 201, 21011, 21516
Charter, 19, 214
Article 1, 20
Article 2.7, 3, 10n.14, 106, 113
Chapter VI, 24
Chapter VII, 24, 60, 89, 90, 112, 116, 135, 199, 21517
contradictions in, 2, 27
crucial principles in, 3, 21, 34, 64, 66, 138
human-centric principles in, 2, 9n.3, 191, 196
normativity and, 1920, 44
state-centric principles in, 2, 9n.2, 191
Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), 57, 602
Development Programme (UNDP), 18, 61, 163
Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), 36n.21, 51, 5960, 64
Commission of Human Rights, see under human rights
Working Group on Forced or Involuntary Disappearances, 59
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 60
General Assembly, 18, 51, 58, 64, 122
High Commissioner for Human Rights (UNHCHR), 64, 197
High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), 1819
membership, 50
peacekeeping operations, see peacekeeping
Secretariat, 18
Security Council, 18, 44, 49, 51, 58, 64, 65, 122
specialised agencies, 1623
UN system, 18
World Food Program (WFP), 163
World Health Organization (WHO), 1819
United Kingdom, see Britain
United States, 44, 62, 66, 93, 193, 212, 21415, 217
Angola conflict, 1569, 164, 1667, 1703
Cambodia conflict, 17981, 184, 1879, 1926, 201
China, 54
coercive regime changes in the Third World, 57
Congo conflict, 1034, 110, 113, 118, 1202, 213
Cyprus conflict, 1325, 140, 149, 212
General Assembly, 64, 78
human rights, 52, 56, 1923, 195
intervention in Guatemala, 51
Korean crisis, 51, 78
sanctions, 60
Suez crisis, 778
‘Uniting for Peace’ Resolution, 51
U Thant, 1212, 142, 145, 148
Vance, C., 1567
Venezuela, 58
Vietnam, 54, 17986, 1927, 199, 2012, 217
Waldheim, K., 157
‘war on terrorism’, 217
Warsaw Pact, 45, 545, 71n.68, 73n.107
Weber, M., 95
Western Energy Coordinating Group, 58
Western Sahara, 22, 89
West Irian, 7, 39n.61, 77, 81, 85
Woodhouse, T., 26
World Anti-Communist League, 171
World Food Program (WFP), see under United Nations
World Health Organization (WHO), see under United Nations
World Trade Organization, 63
see also General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
Yemen, 77, 82, 87
Young, A., 156
Yugoslavia, 2, 38n.50, 49, 59, 63, 89, 215
Zaire, 159
see also Congo
Zambia (former Northern Rhodesia), 1567
see also Rhodesia
Zimbabwe (former Southern Rhodesia), 1657, 184
see also Rhodesia
Zurich Agreement, 1302

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