Index
in Understanding political ideas and movements

Index

Abortion Act (1967) 303
Abortion Law Reform (1967) 298
absolutist monarchy 72
Act of Settlement (1688) 197
Act of Union (1801) 51
active citizenship 132
Adam Smith Institute 209
Adams, Ian 284
Aeschylus 84 ‘affairs of state’ 3
Afghanistan 26, 28, 208, 245
Africa 42, 168
agenda-setting 9
AIDS 317
Althusser, Louis 247, 323
American Revolution (1776–83) 160, 186, 197, 198
Amnesty International 19
anarchism 14, 248–55
critiques 253–4
economics 252
and environmentalism 292–3
equality 251
human nature 249–50
liberty 251
meaning 248
role 216
and socialism 238
state 250–1
sub-species 252–3
anarcho-communism 253
anarcho-syndicalists 252
ancien régime 138, 160
Ancient Greece 65, 70–1
Ancient Sparta 93
Anderson, Benedict 39
Anglo-Irish War (1919–21) 54
Animal Liberation Front 319
animal rights movement 124, 317–19
anti-clericalism 219
anti-colonialism 168
anti-Semitism 163, 270
apartheid 26, 108
apathy, political 68, 79–80
apolitical, meaning 300
Aquinas, St Thomas 323
Arab world 168
Arcadia 276
Arendt, Hannah 259, 323
aristocracy 61
Aristotle 3, 6, 17, 61, 70, 323
see also Plato
Armenians 40, 41
Aryan purity 263
Atlantic Alliance 149
Attlee, Clement 228, 323
Augustus, Caius Octavianus 324
Australia 66, 167
authority 5, 179, 185–6
Axis powers, defeat of 167
Bachrach, Peter 8
Bakunin, Michael 324
Baldwin, Stanley 188, 324
Balkans 165, 208
Ball, John 324
Bangladesh 47
Baratz, Martin 8
Battle of the Boyne (1690) 54
Beer, Samuel 148, 324
Belgium 40, 44, 171
Bell, Daniel 142, 143, 324
Benn, Tony 231, 324
Bentham, Jeremy 12, 107, 128, 198, 318, 324
Berlin, Sir Isaiah 93–5, 101, 209, 324
Bernstein, Eduard 218, 243, 324
Beveridge, Sir William/Beveridge Report (1942) 112, 201, 229, 324
Bhopal chemical plant explosion (India, 1984) 277
Biafra 42
bias of the system (Steven Lukes) 9
Bill of Rights (1689) 197
biological characteristics 43
biosphere 277
Bismarck, Otto von 25, 325
Blachford, Robert 225, 325
Blair, Tony 132, 151, 231, 232, 233–4, 325
BNP (British National Party) 270, 271
Bolshevik Party 140, 253
Bosnia 28, 43, 166
bourgeoisie 139, 241
Brest-Litovsk, Treaty of (1918) 244
Bright, John 207, 325
Britain 48–9
civil service 75
civil wars in 7
Communist Party 245, 247
democracy 61
elected dictatorship 181
fascism in 269–72
gender equality 114
Green Party 278
ideology, role of (age of consensus) 147–52
language use 44
legitimation of government 66
majority rule 67
Marxism 225
moral obligations 126
National Front 270
national identity 40–1, 48–9
nationalism 156
socialism 218–19
Socialist Party 247
sovereignty 27
danger to 182, 185
see also United Kingdom
British Empire 49
British Isles 44, 49
British National Party (BNP) 270, 271
British nations 48–56
Britain 48–9
England 49–50
Northern Ireland 53–6
Scotland 50–2
Wales 52–3
Bruce-Glasier, John 225, 325
BUF (British Union of Fascists) 269, 270
Bukowski, Charles 59, 325
Burke, Edmund 64, 140, 175, 176, 177, 181, 325
Burma 166
Bush, George W. 210, 325
Butler, R. A. 112, 177, 188, 325
Cambodia, as self-serving state 22
Canada 24, 167, 169
capitalism 91
Carson, Rachel 277, 325
Catholicism 44, 45, 50
Central and South America, religious affiliation 45
CGT (Confédération Général du Travail) 253
Chad 42
Chamberlain, Houston Stewart 258, 325
Chamberlain, Joseph 187, 325
charismatic authority 5
Charlemagne, Charles the Great 325
Charter of Fundamental Social Rights 125–6
Chartists 219
Chechnya 147
Chernobyl nuclear power explosion (Soviet Union) (1986) 277
Chicago School of economists 207
China
Hong Kong returned to 49
national identity 41, 49
nationalism 161, 167, 168
‘one child’ policy 280
People’s Republic 246
population 23
as self-serving state 22
state theories/characteristics 22, 23
states of 41
Christendom 160
Christian Democrats, Germany 184
Christian Socialists 224
Christianity 17, 32, 44, 45, 225, 310
Churchill, Sir Winston 59, 326
Cicero, Marcus Tullius 131, 326
citizen democracy 65–6, 81
citizen development 78
citizens 131
Citizen’s Charter 132, 191
citizenship 13, 130–2, 133
British 49
equality of rights 68
legal 130
and nation 39
nature 130–1
participatory 131–2
sociological 131
citizenship nationality 41
civic nationalism 156–7, 172
civic obligations 127
civil disobedience 97–8
civil rights 125
class analysis 217, 219
see also social class
class equality 115
class struggle 21–2
classical liberalism 20, 198–200, 207, 211
classical socialism 230
classless society 191
Claude, Comte de Saint-Simon 224, 336
Clause IV 227, 231, 233
Clause 28 315
coalition government 227
Cobden, Richard 207, 326
Cold War 29, 147, 157, 159, 188
Cole, G. D. H. 228, 326
collectivism/collective ownership 112, 222, 241
Combat 18 270
command economy 252
common ownership 221
Communist Party of Great Britain (CPGB) 245, 247
conscientious objection 96
conscription 96
consensus, age of 147–52
post-war 148, 149–50
Thatcher/Major governments 151–2
conservatism 14, 174–94
American 175
authority 185–6
democracy 73
economy 183–5
environmentalism 291
evolution of thought 176–8
feminism 305
freedom 186
historical origins 176–8
human nature 178–9
institutions 183
law 185
organic view of society 179–80
patriotism 181–2
politics, as limited activity 180–1
property 183
tradition 182–3
Conservative Party (British)
authoritarian strand 186
‘big business’, support from 183
consensus, political 150
and equality of opportunity 112
history nineteenth/early twentieth centuries 186–7
inter-war years 187–8
after 1945 188–9
Thatcherism 189–91
post-Thatcherism 191–3
libertarian strand 186
on nationalism 163
and New Liberalism 201
New Right 186, 190
patriotism 181
Scotland 51
Wales 53
see also Labour Party (British); Thatcher, Margaret; Thatcherism
Constant, Henri Benjamin 90–1
constitutionalism 39
covenant (religion) 127
CPGB (Communist Party of Great Britain) 245, 247
Crichley, T. A. 17
Crick, Bernard 4, 59, 326
Croatia 45, 166, 269
Crosland, Anthony 189, 229, 326
Cuba 246
cultural characteristics 43
Cyprus 166
Czechoslovakia 19, 30, 166, 169, 245
Dahl, Robert 8
dark greens 278, 290
Darwin, Charles 43, 200, 210, 260, 326
de Beauvoir, Simone 298, 324
de Gaulle, Charles 129, 328
de Tocqueville, Alexis 199, 206, 338
decision-making 8
deep greens 278, 290
defensive democracy 63–5, 80
Delors, Jacques 326
Demand Management techniques 149, 207, 229
democracy 58–82
and anti-democratic forces 80
and apathy 68, 79–80
arguments against 73–6
economic relations 75–6
feminist critique 76
incapability 75
liberal concerns 75
specialisation 74–5
arguments in support 76–9
citizen development 78
elites 73, 76–7
participation 78
social change 78–9
social cohesion 77–8
citizen 65–6
conditions for development 70–3
consent 67
decline of, ancient world 71
defensive 63–5, 80
defining 13, 60
direct 63–5, 66, 67
elements 60–70
equality of citizenship rights 68
future 79–81
and globalisation 79
green issues 283
irrational forces 80
legitimation of government 66–7
and majority rule 67–8, 81
Marxist 75–6
and nationality 46
and need 11–12
people 66–7
and politics 5–6
public opinion 69
republican 65–6
rule of law 39, 59, 70
and social change 78–9
sovereignty 67
as system of government 61–6
democratic centralism 244
democratic culture 70
demos (people) 60
Denmark 40, 66
Derrida, Jacques 326
Descartes, R. 72, 326
deserts, just 11
Deutsch, Karl 38
devolution 233
Dickens, Charles 43, 326–7
Diggers 104, 223
direct democracy 63–5, 66, 67
Direct Rule (Northern Ireland) 54
Disability Discrimination Act (1995) 314
disabled rights movement 313–15
disasters, environmental 277
Disraeli, Benjamin 179, 187, 327
distributional equality 106, 111–14
Divine Right of Kings 44
division of labour 74
Divorce Law Reform (1969) 298
Domestic Violence Act (1977) 298
Dubos, Rene 277, 338
Duce 265
Dworkin, Andrea 306
Dworkin, Ronald 209, 327
Easter Island 289
Easter Rising (1916) 55
Eastern Europe, nationality 46
Easton, David 5
ECHR (European Convention on Human Rights) 123, 185
ecologism see environmentalism
economic freedom 86–7
economics
anarchism 252
conservatism 183–5
Demand Management techniques 149, 207, 229
and democracy, critique of 75–6
environmentalism/ecologism 284–6
fascism 265–6
ideology 138–9
liberalism 206–7
Marxism 241–2
see also Keynes, John Maynard
Education Act (1944) 112
Education Action Zones 233
egalitarians/egalitarianism 105, 107, 109–10, 113, 221
anti-egalitarians 111
Ehrlich, Paul 277, 327
Eliot, T. S. 180, 188, 327
elites
and democracy 73, 76–7
and fascism 263–4
and nationalism 162
and politics 73
and state 42
Elshtain, Jean Bethke 305
Employment Protection Act (1975) 298
Engels, Friedrich 138, 239, 304, 327
England 49–50
English Civil Wars (1642–49) 104, 122
English language 44
Enlightenment
conservatism 176, 193
fascism 258
feminism 296
ideology 138
national identity 47
socialism 220, 221
Environmental Sustainability Index (2002) 293
environmentalism/ecologism 15, 274–94
anti-materialism 285
conservative 291
critique of green position see green themes: critique
growth 285–6
industrialism 284–5
liberal 291–3
mysticism 281
other ideologies contrasted 278–9
rise of 276–8
socialist 291
sustainability 286
see also green themes
equal consideration principle 108
equal opportunities 22, 108, 112–13
Equal Pay Act (1970) 114, 298, 303
equal pay legislation 22
equal rights principle 107
equal voting 108–9
equality 13, 103–20
anarchism 251
before the law 109
of citizenship rights 68
class 115
decline of 117–19
development of 104–5
distributional 106, 111–14
equal consideration 108
equal opportunities 22, 108, 112–13
foundational 105, 106–11
and freedom 84–5
gender 114
group rights 114–15
individual 105
international society 116–17
and need 11–12
participation rights 108–9
as political principle 106, 107
primary 105, 106–11
racial 115
secondary 106, 111–14
social rights 109–11
and socialism 221–2
welfare 109–11
equality of outcome 113–14
ERM (Exchange Rate Mechanism) 231–2
Estates General 141
ethical socialism 225
Ethiopia 42
ethnic cleansing 269, 283
ethnic nationalism 156, 172
EU (European Union) 27, 33, 125, 268
eugenics 262, 283
Euro-sceptics 182
European Commission 125
European Convention on Human Rights 123, 185
European Union (EU) 27, 33, 125, 268
Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) 231–2
expert opinion 69
extermination camps 99
externalities 292
Fabianism 219, 226
Fabius Maximus Cunctator 226
faith communities 233
Falklands war (1982) 49
Fall of Man 178
false consciousness 242
family, importance of 180
Farrakhan, Louis 171, 327
fascism 14–15, 256–73
aggression/conflict 261
anti-intellectualism 261
in Britain 269–72
conformity 261–2
economic theory 265–6
and environmentalism 292
explanations 258–9
government 265
ideas 259–67
irrationalism 261–2
leader/elite 263–4
modern European 267–9
nation/race 262–3
non-materialism 261
racial laws 260
and religion 262
social policy 266–7
state 264–5
war 260
Fascist Grand Council 265
Fatherland 48
Federation of Conservative Students 186
feminism 15, 295–308
‘first-wave’ 297–8
‘second-wave’ 298, 299
‘third-wave’ 299–300
democracy, critique of 76
and environmentalism 292
gender 300, 301
ideology 302
legislation 298, 303
patriarchy 302
and politics 3–4
public/private spheres 301
schools 302–6
conservative 305
liberal 303
radical 305–7
socialist 303
sex 300
sexism 301
state theories 22
Fenians 55
feudal era 122
Fichte, Johann Gottlieb 47, 327
Fiji 24
Filmer, Sir Robert 176, 327
Finland 40
Finns 46
First International (1864–76) 243
First World War (1914–18) 54, 244, 259, 297
Five-Year Plans (USSR) 245
Foot, Michael 231, 327
Foucault, Michel 9, 327
foundational equality 105, 106–11
Fourier, Charles 217, 224, 303, 328
France
Declaration of the Rights of Man (1789) 156
Estates General 141
Germany, defeat by 129
legitimation of government 67
National Front 268
national identity 45
nationalism 156, 159
origins 24
population 23
referenda in 66
sovereignty, asserting of 30
Third French Republic (1870–1940) 158
see also French Revolution (1789)
France, Anatole 328
franchise, extension of 179
Franco, General Francisco 62, 267, 328
free market 11, 148
free trade 184
freedom 13, 83–102
conservatism 186
contributors 88–95
economic 86–7
and equality 84–5
individual 85
liberalism 204–5
and liberty 84
national 87–8
negative 89, 94–5
positive 93–4
and property 87
as socialist goal 222
and society 99–100
and state 95–9
under the law 86
Freedom Association 209
freedom of opinion/expression 85–6
French Revolution (1789)
and conservatism 176, 177, 186, 193
and feminism 296
and liberalism 198
and nationalism 160
and socialism 223–4
Friedan, Betty 298, 303, 328
Friedman, Milton 184, 207, 209, 328
Fromm, Erich 259, 328
Führer principle 264, 265
Fukuyama, Francis 142, 143, 328
fundamentalism
critique 312–13
current 311–12
religious 310–11
secular 310
futurism 258
G8 group 248
Gaitskell, Hugh 189, 328
Gandhi, Mahatma 97
Garrison, William Lloyd 328
gay rights movement 315–17
Gellner, Ernest 40, 162, 328
gender, sex/sexism distinguished 300–1
gender equality 114
General Strike (1926) 188, 227
General Will 67, 90, 264
Genesis 282
genocide 260, 262
Gentile, Giovanni 3
geography of states 24
Georgia 147
Germany
Christian Democrats 184
ethnic nationalism 156
Green Party 278
legitimation of government 67
modern 25
national identity 39
nationalism 159
and social democracy 20–1
Social Democratic Party 218
unification (1871) 158, 160, 169
Weimar Republic 62
see also Nazi Germany
Gilmour, Sir Ian 184, 328
Gladstone, William Ewart 198, 328
glasnost (openness) 246
globalisation 30, 33, 79, 162, 231
Glorious Revolution (1688) 197
GNP (Gross National Product) 284
Gobineau, Arthur 258, 329
Godwin, William 248, 249, 329
Gorbachev, Mikhail 246, 329
Gotha Programme (SDP) 243
government
coalition 227
democracy, as system of 61–6
fascism 265
and law 25–6
limited (liberalism) 205–6
and nation 45–6
popular 60
representative 60
state distinguished from 18
weak, consequences of 185
Gramsci, Antonio 139
Great Britain see Britain Greece 45
Green, T. H. 200, 329
green movement/greens 275
Green Party
Britain 234, 278
Germany 278
green themes
critique 286–90
intellectual incoherence 287–8
practical difficulties 289–90
scientific implausibility 288–9
economics 284–6
human nature 279–82
mysticism 280–1
nature 279–82
politics 282–4
population control 280
science 280–1
‘spaceship earth’ 279–80
Greenpeace 19
Greer, Germaine 298, 299, 329
Gross National Product (GNP) 284
group rights 114–15
Guardians (Plato) 74, 75
Gulf War (1990–91) 49, 208
Gypsies, massacre of 43, 146
Hague, William 175, 191–2, 329
Hailsham, Lord Quintin Hogg 180, 185, 329
Hanoverians, accession to British throne (1714) 51
Hardie, Keir 225, 329
Hastings, Adrian 39
Hattersley, Roy 329
Healey, Denis 329
Heath, Sir Edward 189, 329
Hegel, G. W. F. 240, 258, 329
Herder, Johann Gottfried 47, 330
hierarchy 179
Himmler, Heinrich 264, 330
Hinduism 45
Hitler, Adolf
and democracy 60
and fascism 258, 259, 261, 262, 265, 266
and state 22
HIV/AIDS 317
Hobbes, Thomas
and conservatism 176, 185
and democracy 72
and environmentalism 283
and freedom 89
and liberalism 197
and obligation 127–8
and power 7
Hobhouse, L. T. 201, 330
Hobsbawm, Eric 39, 145
Hobson, J. A. 201, 330
Holocaust 267
Holy Roman Emperor 160
Home Rule (Northern Ireland) 54, 55
Homeland 48
homo sapiens 43
homosexuality 315–17
Hong Kong 49
House of Lords, reform proposals 186
human nature
anarchism 249–50
environmentalism/ecologism 279–82
Hobbes on 7
optimistic view of 204, 220–1
pessimistic view of 178–9
human rights 123, 124–5
Hungarian Revolution (1956) 245
Hungary 30, 41
Hutton, Will 234
Hyndman, H. M. 225, 330
ideology 13, 135–53
challenges (1970s) 150–1
class structure 138–9
consensus, age of 147–52
‘dominant’ 139–40
economic factors 138–9
end of 142–3
feminism 302
horizontal/vertical axis 142
‘left’, ‘right’, ‘centre’ 141–2
Marxists 138–9
meaning 137–42
modern history 144–7
and movements, competitive nature 319–21
nationalism as 155–9
political spectrum 142
‘relaxed’ 141
‘restrictive’ 140–1
transmission 143–4
IMF (International Monetary Fund) 232, 248
imperialism 140, 158, 161, 210, 285
India 23, 40, 45, 47, 166, 168, 277
Indian Congress Party 97
individual equality 105
individual freedom 85
individualistic, meaning 300
industrialisation/industrialism 215, 284–5
inequality 180, 225
inflation 230
informed general opinion 69
Institute of Directors 209
Institute for Economic Affairs and Aims of Industry 189
institutions 183
interest groups 19
interests, real/perceived 7
international law 26
International Monetary Fund (IMF) 232, 248
international politics 166–7
international society 17, 29–30, 116–17
International Working Men’s Association (First International) 243
internet, sovereignty, challenges to 32
Iraq 168, 208
Ireland 41, 44
Islam 45, 93
Israel 45, 47
Italy 23, 43, 45, 66, 159, 160
James VI and I, King 48, 50
Japan 40, 45
Jefferson, Thomas 122, 124, 330
Jenkins, Peter 148, 330
Jewish people 46, 263
massacre of 43, 146, 260
see also anti-Semitism
Joravsky, David 137
Joseph, Sir Keith 330
Jospin, Lionel 268
Judaism 45, 310
Judeo-Christian tradition 282
justice 9–12
Kant, Immanuel 90
Katanga 42
Kautsky, Karl 239, 330
Kerensky, Alesander 244, 330–1
Keynes, John Maynard 112, 149, 151, 184, 201, 207, 229
Khrushchev, Nikita S. 245, 331
Kinnock, Neil 151, 231, 331
Kissinger, Henry 74
Korea 41, 246
Kosovo 43, 210
kratein (to rule) 60
Kropotkin, Peter 248, 250, 253, 331
Kubrick, Stanley 38
Kurds 18, 40, 41
Labour Party (British) 226–34
Blairism 233–4
constitutional changes, proposed 185–6
and equality of opportunity 112
formation 226–7
history
1920s and 1930s 187, 227–8
1945–51 188, 228–9
1951–79 229–30
1979–97 52, 53, 230–2
New Labour 132, 210, 231, 233, 235
and New Liberalism 201
in opposition and government 229–32
in power 228–30
prior to 224–6
and quasi-Conservative policies 191
and Scotland 52
socialism outside 234
trade unions, links with 219
and Wales 53
see also Conservative Party (British); socialism
Labour Representation Committee 226
labour theory of value 241
laissez-faire policies 199, 200
Land Reform (Northern Ireland) 55
language, and national identity 43–4
Laski, Harold J. 228, 331
Lasswell, Harold 5
law
and conservatism 185
equality before the 109
freedom under the 86
and government 25–6
and justice 10
rule of 59, 70
Le Pen, Jean-Marie 268, 331
leader concept 264
League of Nations 38, 157, 208, 209
Covenant of (1920) 165
League of St. George 270
Lebanon 28, 168
Lebensraum (living space) 260
legal citizenship 130
legal equality 109
legal obligations 127
legal rights 125
legal sovereignty 27, 28
legitimacy, meaning 66
Lenin, V. I. 139, 140, 244, 331
lesbianism 315
Levellers 104
Levi, Primo 267, 331
Leviathan state 22
Liberal/Liberal Democrat Party (British) 52, 53, 150, 196, 210, 226, 227
liberal feminism 303
liberal nationalism 157–8, 172
Liberal-Democratic Party, Russia 269
liberal-pluralist analysis 20
liberalism 14, 195–213
British history
nineteenth century 198–200
late nineteenth century/early
twentieth century 200–2
twentieth century 208–11
classical 20, 198–200, 207, 211
and economy 206–7
freedom 204–5
human nature 204
as ideology 138–9
individual, rights of 123, 202–4
internationalism, commitment to 208
and justice 11
limited government 205–6
nationalism 163
New Liberals 93, 200–2, 211, 225
origins 196–8
progress, belief in 204
see also neo-liberalism
liberation theology 248
‘liberty of the ancients/moderns’ (Henri Constant) 90
liberty doctrine 39, 84, 251
life, right to 123
light greens 279
Lijst Fortuyn party (Netherlands) 269
Lincoln, Abraham 38
Lloyd George, David 201, 331
Locke, John
on democracy 72
on freedom 89–90, 205
on ideology 140, 148
on liberalism 197
on obligations 127–8, 129
on rights 124, 125
logos (science) 276
Louis XIV (King) 331
Lovelock, James 281, 287, 332
Loyalists (Northern Ireland) 54, 55, 98
Lukács, Georg 247, 332
Lukes, Steven 8–9
Maastricht Treaty (1992) 126
Macdonald, James Ramsay 227, 228, 332
Machiavelli, Niccolo 6, 71, 89, 137, 332
Macintyre, Alistair 234, 332
Macleod, Iain 188, 332
Macmillan, Harold 177, 181, 188, 332
Major, John 132, 151, 191, 332
majority rule 67–8, 81
Malthus, Thomas R. 280, 288, 332
Manchester School of economics 207
mandates 61
legitimation of government 67
Mao Zedong 22, 246, 332
Marcuse, Herbert 247, 250, 332
market, meaning 199
Marx, Karl 239, 254, 332
and feminism 304
and freedom 91
and ideology 138
and power 7
and socialism 217, 219
Marxism 14, 238–48
anti-colonialism 168
British 225
economics 241–2
historical development, ideas on 240–1
history
nineteenth century 243–4
twentieth century (1914–53) 244–5
twentieth century (1953–2000) 245–6
twenty-first century 247–8
ideology 138–9
and nationalism 163–4
and need 11
and politics 5, 242–3
Russia 244–6
state theories 21–2
see also anarchism; Marx, Karl; socialism
Marxism/Leninism 244, 247
Marxist democracy 75–6
mass uninformed general opinion 69
materialism 240
Mazzini, Giuseppe 47, 157, 333
media, sovereignty, challenges to 32
Meinecke, Friedrich 39, 333
merit 11
Michels, Robert 64, 333
Middle Eastern states 34, 168
Militant Tendency 247
Mill, James 333
Mill, John Stuart
and feminism 297, 303
and freedom 91, 92–3, 101
and ideology 140, 148
and liberalism 198
and rights 125
Millet, Kate 298, 333
Milosovich, Slobodan 269
Milton, John 197, 333
miners’ strike (1984–85) 190
minimum/maximum wage 113
Mitchell, Juliet 304, 333
MNCs (Multi-National Corporations) 32–3, 35
mode of production 240
monarchy 61
absolutist 72
Montesquieu, Charles de Secondat 72, 197, 206, 333
moral obligations 126
More, Thomas 223, 333
Morris, William 225, 276, 333
Morrison, Herbert 233, 333
Mosca, Gaetano 64, 333
Mosley, Sir Oswald Ernald 266, 269–70, 334
Motherland 48
movements, competitive nature 319–21
multi-culturalism 179
Multi-National Corporations (MNCs) 32–3, 35
Murray, Charles 334
Muslim religion 32
Mussolini, Benito
and democracy 60
and fascism 23, 60, 257, 259, 261, 262, 264, 265, 266
and state theories 23
mutualism 252
mysticism 280–1
nanny state 190
Napoleon I (Bonaparte) 334
Napoleon III (Bonaparte) 242, 334
Napoleonic wars (1792–1815) 160, 166, 224
nation 13, 37–57
British 48–56
family, national 48
fascism 262–3
and government 45–6
historical/cultural ties 46–7
history 38–9
as imagined community 47
and language 43–4
meaning 40
and race 43
religion 44–5
‘sense of nationhood’ 47–8
and state 18, 40–2
see also national identity; nationalism
nation-building 19, 42
Nation of Islam 171
nation-state 18
National Alliance (Italy) 269
National Council of Corporations (Germany) 266
National Curriculum, citizenship as part of 130, 132
national freedom 87–8
National Front
Britain 270
France 268
National Health Service Act (1946) 112
national identity
American 46
British 40–1, 48–9
culture 39–40
empires, end of 167–8, 182
England 49–50
government 45–6
language 43–4
nation/state 41, 42
Northern Ireland 53–6
religion 44–5
Scotland 50–2
Wales 52–3
see also nation; nationalism
national security 26
National Socialism 99
see also Nazi Germany
National Socialist German Workers Party
see Nazi Germany
national symbols 42
National Trust 319
National Women’s Suffrage Association 297
nationalisation 21, 222
nationalism 45, 154–73
in age of revolutions 160–1
anti-colonialist 161
civic 156–7, 172
critique 169–70
early modern 160
and empires, end of 167–8, 182
English 182
ethnic 156, 172
future 170–2
and government 45–6
history 159–62
as ideology 155–9, 166
impact 164–9, 172
imperialist 140, 161
and international politics 166–7
liberal 157–8, 172
and multinational states, end of 167–9
political interests 162–4
post-Cold War 162
proto- 160
psychological appeal 164–5
radical 158–9
reactionary 158
self-determination 40, 165–6
sovereignty 156
twentieth-century 161
see also nation; national identity
nationality, meaning 41
nations 13
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organisation) 30
natural rights 124–5
nature 279–82
Nauru 23, 24
Nazi Germany
and democracy 60
equal consideration principle 108
First Programme 263
green concerns 276
and nation 262
national identity 43, 47
obedience 129
politics 3
and rights 123
state theories 22
terrorism 98, 99
see also fascism; Germany; National Socialism
Nazi–Soviet Pact (1939) 146
Nechaev, Sergei 250, 334
need 11–12
negative freedom 89, 94–5
neo-colonialism 33–4, 159
neo-liberalism 20, 148, 190, 209
Netherlands 45
New Harmony 224
New Labour 132, 210, 231, 233, 235
New Liberals 93, 200–2, 211, 225
New Right 186, 190
New Trade Unionism 225
New Zealand 66, 167
Newton, Sir Isaac 198, 334
NGOs (non-governmental organisations) 28
Nietzsche, Friedrich 258, 334
Nonconformists 109
Norman Conquest 49
Norris, Steven 192, 334
Northern Ireland
and British nation 53–6
conflict 171
national identity 41
nationalism 164, 166
paramilitary organisations 98
politics 4
‘Troubles’ 310
see also Ireland
Northern League (Italy) 269
Norway 40
Nozick, Robert 10–11, 209, 334
nuclear weapons 31
Oakeshott, Michael 3, 180, 184, 189, 334
obligations 126–30, 133
civic 127
moral 126
nature 126–7
social 127
sources 127–30
state sovereignty 13
Offa of Mercia, King 49
oikos (household) 276
Old Bolsheviks 245
Old Testament 39
oligarchy 61
oppression 298
O’Rourke, P. J. 275
Orwell, George 245, 334
Ostrogorski, Mosei 64, 334
Ottoman Empire, collapse 168
Owen, Robert 217, 224, 303, 335
pacifism 226
Paglia, Camille 299
Paine, Thomas 198, 335
Pakistan 45, 47
Palestine/Palestinians 41, 166
paramilitary organisations 98
Paris Peace Conference (1919) 165
parliamentary sovereignty 185
Parris, Matthew 335
participation
equal rights 108–9
moral claim for 78
participatory citizenship 131–2
Partition (Northern Ireland, 1921) 54
paternalism 188
patriarchy 302
patriotism 163, 181–2
Peel, Sir Robert 177, 186, 335
perestroika (modernisation) 246
Pericles 335
Pétain, Marshal Philippe 129, 335
Philippines, religious affiliation 45
Pinochet, General Augusto 335
Plaid Cymru 53
Plato 9–10, 75, 176, 223, 335
Republic 9, 10, 70, 74, 88
Plekhanov, Georgii V. 239, 335
pluralism 202
Pol Pot 22
Poland 24, 30, 45, 245
poleis (city-state) 70
political ideologies 137
political nationalism 45
political parties 19
politicians, perception of 6
politics
‘affairs of state’ 3
environmentalism/ecologism 282–4
ideology, role in 13
as limited activity 180–1
Marxism 242–3
meaning 3–6
negative views of 5–6
participation in, importance 1
political/non-political distinguished 4
and religion 310–13
politiki 3
Popper, Sir Karl R. 178, 209, 259, 335
population, and state 23–4
population control 280
Portillo, Michael 192, 335
Portugal 45
language of 44
positive freedom 93–4
Powell, Enoch 189, 335
power 6–9
authority as 5
dimensions of 8–9
and equality before the law 109
Hobbes on 7
libertarian pursuit of 94
Lukes on 8–9
political agenda-setting 9
reality of 7
representation of 7
Weber on 8
power structures 136
practical sovereignty 28, 30, 31
pragmatism 149, 186
pressure groups 19, 189
price, and justice 11
primary equality 105, 106–11
private property 96–7, 183, 222
privatisation 21, 183, 209
proletariat 139, 242
property 87, 96–7, 183, 222
see also collectivism/collective ownership
Protestant Reformation 17, 44
Protestantism 44, 45, 50, 55
proto-nationalism 160
Proudhon, Pierre-Joseph 249, 251, 252, 335
pseudo-democracies 60 ‘pseudo-states’ 26
public opinion 69
public spending 112
Public–Private Partnership 233
Pufendorf, Samuel von 72, 335
Putnam, Robert 234
race, and nation 43
Race Relations Act (1968) 115
racial equality 115
radical feminism 305–7
radical nationalism 158–9
Rainsborough, Thomas 336
rational legal authority 5
rationality 321–2
Rawls, John 12, 91, 205, 209, 336
reactionary nationalism 158
Reagan, Ronald 209, 336
Red Army 245
referenda 65, 66
reform, social 78–9
Reformation 17, 44
reformism 218
Regan, Tom 318
religion 32, 44–5, 262, 281, 310–13
religious wars 17
Renaissance 71, 72, 160
representative government 60
repressive tolerance 247, 250
republican democracy 65–6
res publicae 3
revisionism 243
revolutions
French see French Revolution (1789)
‘Glorious’ (1688) 197
Hungarian (1956) 245
nationalism 160–1
Russian (1917) 187
and socialism 217–18
United States (1776–83) 160, 176, 197
rewards 108
Ricardo, David 140, 147, 225, 336
rights 13, 122–6, 132
citizenship 68
civil 125
group 114–15
human 124–5
individual, of 123, 202–4
legal 125
natural 124–5
nature 124–6
participation 108–9
social 109–11
welfare 125–6
see also citizenship; obligations
rights of man 122, 297
Romania, Republic of 30
romantic socialism 220
Romanticism 276
Rome, democracy, origins of 71
Romero, Oscar 130, 336
Roosevelt, Franklin D. 175
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques 72, 90, 105, 113, 281, 336
Royal National Institute for the Blind (RNIB) 314
rule of law 39, 59, 70
Rushdie, Salman 204, 336
Ruskin, John 336
Russia
civil disobedience 98
communal groups in 46
geography 24
Liberal-Democratic Party 269
Marxism 244–6
as nation-state 40
national identity 45
origins 24
population 23
Revolution (1917) 187
states of 41
see also Soviet Union
Rwanda 166
Saint Augustine of Hippo 6, 178, 323
Saint-Simon, Claude 224, 336
Salisbury, Lord Robert Arthur 188, 336
Sandel, Michael 234, 336
Saudi Arabia 126
Scandinavia 44, 45, 113
Schacht, Hjalmar 336
Schumacher, Fritz 277, 336
Schumpeter, Joseph Alois 64, 337
science, environmentalism/ecologism 280–1
scientific socialism 220, 224
Scotland 44, 50–52, 171
Scottish National Party (SNP) 51, 52
Scruton, Roger 184, 337
SDP (German Social Democratic Party) 218, 243
Second International (1889–1914) 218, 243
Second World War (1939–45) 43, 143, 150, 167, 208, 261, 297
secondary equality 106, 111–14
secular society 50
self-determination, national 40, 116, 165–6
separation of powers 124
Serbia 45, 166, 269
sex, gender distinguished 300
Sex Discrimination Act (1975) 114, 298, 303
Sexual Offences Reform Act (1967) 315
Seyssel, Claude de 337
Shakespeare, William 43
shallow greens 279
Shaw, George Bernard 59, 226, 337
Shintoism 45
Sierra Leone 28
Simonides 10
Singer, Peter 318
Sinn Fein 98
Slavs, massacre of 43, 146, 260
Smiles, Samuel 200, 337
Smith, Adam 140, 147, 197, 199, 207, 225, 337
Smith, Anthony 46
Smith, Iain Duncan 192, 327
Smith, John 151, 231, 337
SNP (Scottish National Party) 51, 52
Social Chapter 126
social class 23–4, 115, 177
see also class analysis
social cohesion 77–8, 163
social contract 127–8
Social Darwinism 260, 283
Social Democratic Federation 225
Social Democratic Party
Britain 150, 230
Germany 218, 243
social function ideologies 137
social justice 10–11, 12
social obligations 127
social rights 109–11
social democracy 20–1
socialism 14, 214–36
and anarchism 238
anti-colonialism 168
classical 230
common ownership 221
continental/British 218–19
defining 216–17
divisions 217–20
environmentalism 291
equality 221–2
ethical 225
freedom 222
history 223–4
human nature 220–1
and justice 11
revisionist 218
revolutionary 217–18
role 217
romantic 220
scientific 220, 224
and state 222–3
Utopian 217, 224–5
see also Labour Party (British); Marxism
socialist feminism 303
Socialist Labour League 247
Socialist League 225
Socialist Party of Great Britain 247
Socialist Workers’ Party 247
society, organic view of 179–80
sociological citizenship 131
Socrates 10
Somalia 28
Sorel, Georges 248, 250, 337
South Africa
apartheid regime 26, 108
as nation-state 40
sovereignty
British, danger to 182, 185
democracy 67
as dynamic concept 34
external 26
internal 27
legal 27, 28, 30
nationalism 156
practical 28, 30, 31
self-government 87
see also state sovereignty
Soviet Union
Chernobyl nuclear power explosion (1986) 277
Cold War 29
collapse (1991) 18, 24, 41, 116, 118, 162, 196, 238
and freedom 99
ideology, socialist 139
nationalism 161, 167, 169
self-serving state 22
sovereignty claims 30
as totalitarian regime 3
see also Cold War; Russia
‘spaceship earth’, environmentalism 279–80
Spain 40, 45, 62, 126
language of 44
Spanish Civil War (1936–39) 249
specialisation 74–5
Spencer, Herbert 95, 200, 260, 337
spin doctors 145
Spinoza, Baruch 197, 337
Sri Lanka 40
stagflation 209
Stalin, Joseph 22, 245, 337
state
abuse of power 20
anarchism 250–1
characteristics of 23–4
fascism 264–5
freedom in relation to 95–9
government distinguished 18
history 17–18
independence 17–18
and models 19
modern 25
nation distinguished 18, 40–2
power of 34
self-serving 22–3
as ‘servant’ of ‘people’ 20
and socialism 222–3
as theoretical concept 18
theories of 19–23
see also state sovereignty
state characteristics 23–4
geography 24
law/government 25–6
longevity 24–5
population 23–4
sovereignty 12, 26–8
challenges 28–34
state of nature 7, 128
state sovereignty 12, 26–8
challenges to 28–34
external 26
globalisation, impact 30
informal ties, growing 31–2
internal 27
international actors 32–3
international society, structure 29–30
legal 27, 28, 30
neo-colonialism 33–4
practical 28, 30, 31
weapons of mass destruction 31
Westphalia, Treaty of 17
see also sovereignty
state theories 19–23
feminist views 22
liberal-pluralist analysis 20
Marxism 21–2
models 19
political parties 19
pressure/interest groups 19
self-serving states 22–3
social democracy 20–1
Stirner, Max (aka Johann Casper Schmidt) 99, 248, 337
Stoics 87, 88
Stormont, government at 54
substructure 240
Sudan 42
suffrage 62
superpowers 29–30
supply and demand 241
surplus value 242
Sweden 40, 43
Switzerland 44, 65, 93
symbols, national 42
Syndicalism 228, 253
Taff Vale Case (1901) 227
Taliban regime 26
Tawney, R. H. 228, 233, 337
Taylor, Harriet 303, 337
terrorism 97, 98–9
Thailand 40
Thatcher, Margaret. 126, 151, 178, 183, 189, 190, 207, 232, 337
Thatcherism 184, 189–91, 209
post-Thatcher conservatism 191–3
think-tanks 209
Third Reich (1933–45) 3, 22, 43, 47, 60
Thirty Years’ War (1618–48, Europe) 7, 17
Thrasymachus 10
Tolstoy, Leo 248, 251, 276, 338
Tory Party 182, 193
totalitarianism 3, 129, 259
tourism 32
Tracey, Destutt de 338
Trade Union Act (1871) 179
Trade Unionism 225
tradition 182–3
traditional authority 5
Treaty on European Union (Maastricht) (1992) 126
Trotsky, Leon 245, 338
Tudjman, Franjo 269, 338
Turkey 40, 159
Twentieth Party Congress (1956) 245
Uganda 42
UK see United Kingdom Ulster 54
Unionists (Northern Ireland) 54
United Kingdom
equality of outcome 113
European Union, membership of 27
as multi-national state 40
multiple voting rights 68
national identity 39, 41
nationalism 171
political debate 136
political parties see Conservative Party (British); Labour Party (British); Liberal/Liberal Democrat Party (British)
population 23
referenda 66
as state 18, 24, 25, 40–1
voting apathy 80
see also Britain; England
United Nations
Charter (1945) 165, 208
General Assembly 26, 116
as international actor 33
liberal nationalism 157
and rights 123
state sovereignty, challenges to 28
terminology 38
United States
American Revolution (1776–83) 160, 176, 197, 198
anarchism 238
civil rights movement (1960s) 125
Cold War 29
conservatism 175
Declaration of Independence (1776) 124, 125, 129, 156, 197, 297
direct democracy 66
equality of outcome 113
feminism 297
fundamentalism 312
geography 24
national identity 39, 46
nationalism 156, 167
political debate 136
population 23
and race 43
religious identity 45
War of Independence (1776–83) 47, 124–5
see also Cold War
Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) 122, 208
US see United States
USSR see Soviet Union
Utilitarianism 12, 107, 128, 198
Utopia 178
Utopian socialism 217, 224–5
Vatican City State 24, 123
Versailles Peace Conference (1919) 40
Versailles Treaty (1919) 24, 87, 116, 208, 209
Vietnam 47, 167
Volk/Volksgeist 47, 129, 262, 266
Volkswanderung 162
Voltaire (aka François-Marie Arouet) 197
von Hayek, Friedrich 10–11, 178, 184, 189, 205, 207, 209
von Pufendorf, Samuel 335
voting apathy 68, 79–80
Wales 39, 44, 52–3, 171
Wallas, Graham 226, 338
Walter, Natasha 299
Walzer, Michael 209, 338
Ward, Barbara 277, 338
Warsaw Pact 30
weapons of mass destruction 31
Webb, Beatrice and Sidney 219, 226, 338
Weber, Max 5, 8, 64, 338
Weimar Republic, Germany 62
welfare, equality of 109–11
welfare rights 125–6
Wessex, Anglo-Saxon kingdom of 24
Westphalia, Treaty of (1648) 17, 25–6, 27
Whigs 175, 197
White, R. J. 175
Widdecombe, Ann 192, 338
Wilson, Harold 230, 338
Wilson, Thomas Woodrow 165, 338
Winstanley, Gerrard 223, 338
Wollstonecraft, Mary 296, 303, 339
Women’s Social and Political Union 297
Wordsworth, William 339
Workers’ Revolutionary Party (WRP) 247
World Bank 232, 248
World Spirit 240
World Trade Organisation (WTO) 232
world view (Weltanschauung) 155
xenophobia 32, 179
Yugoslav Federation, end of 18–19, 116, 169
Zhirinovsky, Vladimir 269

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Understanding political ideas and movements

A guide for A2 politics students

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