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Notes
in Anti-racist scholar-activism

Notes

Introduction: anti-racist scholar-activism and the neoliberal-imperial-institutionally-racist university

1 Following Sivanandan, we use ‘communities of resistance’ throughout this book to capture the agentic nature of ‘marginalised communities’; see Ambalavaner Sivanandan, Communities of Resistance: Writings of Black Struggles for Socialism (London: Verso, 2019).
2 Though commonly regarded more as a public intellectual than a scholar-activist, Karim Murji advances a compelling argument for seeing Hall as a ‘theorist-activist’ – a concept he perceives to ‘overlap with … [but] carries a different inflection from both’ public intellectual and scholar-activist; see Karim Murji, ‘Stuart Hall as a criminological theorist-activist’, Theoretical Criminology, 24:3 (2020), 447–460.
3 We are very deliberate in referencing extensively throughout. This book builds upon a wide range of works that have come before, and so our interventions are born out of this wider scholarship. As such, and taking a politics of citation seriously, we hope that a further contribution we make is to draw attention to many of the important works that we cite. We therefore encourage readers to follow up and engage with the citations that we draw upon. As Sara Ahmed argues, ‘Citation is how we acknowledge our debt to those who came before.’ See Sara Ahmed, Living a Feminist Life (London: Duke University Press, 2017), p. 17.
4 The dictum ‘pessimism of the intelligence, optimism of the will’ was first coined by Romain Rolland and later developed by Gramsci, to whom it is most commonly attributed, before it was then later picked up by Hall; see Stuart Hall, ‘The great moving right show’, Marxism Today, January 1979, available at: https://mronline.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/06/79_01_hall.pdf [accessed 4 June 2021].
5 We return to the concept of freedom dreams throughout the book because, as well as influencing the spirit with which we have written the book, we argue that freedom dreaming is also an important component of anti-racist scholar-activist praxes; see Robin D.G. Kelley, Freedom Dreams: The Black Radical Imagination (Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 2002).
6 Deborah Gabriel and Shirley Anne Tate, Inside the Ivory Tower (London: Trentham Books, 2017); Jason Olsen, Miro Griffiths, Armineh Soorenian, and Rebecca Porter, ‘Reporting from the margins: Disabled academics reflections on higher education’, Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, 22:1 (2020), 265–274; Michael Seal, The Interruption of Heteronormativity in Higher Education (London: Palgrave, 2019); Katy Sian, Navigating Institutional Racism in British Universities (London: Palgrave, 2019).
7 Les Back, Academic Diary: Or Why Higher Education Still Matters (London: Goldsmiths Press, 2016); Mark Olssen, ‘Neoliberal competition in higher education today: Research, accountability and impact’, British Journal of Sociology of Education, 37:1 (2015), 129–148.
8 Henry Giroux, ‘Do hope and critical pedagogy matter under the reign of neoliberalism?’, in Issues in Art and Design Teaching, ed. by Nicholas Addison and Lesley Burgess (London: Routledge Falmer, 2003), 167–177, p. 173.
9 Scarlett Harris, ‘Islamophobia and anti-racism in two british cities: Place, theory and practice’. PhD thesis, University of Glasgow, 2020, p. 5.
10 David Gillborn, ‘Anti-racism: From policy to praxis’, in Routledge International Companion to Education, ed. by Miriam Ben-Peretz, Sally Brown, and Bob Moon (London: Routledge, 2000), 476–488.
11 Alana Lentin, Racism and Anti-Racism in Europe (London: Pluto Press, 2004), p. 1.
12 Alastair Bonnett, Anti-Racism (London: Routledge, 2000), p. 3.
13 Adam Elliott-Cooper, ‘The struggle that cannot be named: Violence, space and the re-articulation of anti-racism in post-Duggan Britain’, Ethnic and Racial Studies, 41:14 (2018), 2445–2463.
14 Lentin, Racism and Anti-Racism in Europe, p. 6.
15 As a concept, political Blackness points to the existence of a shared experience ‘of colonial rule and subsequent state racism’ that unites people from ‘African, Caribbean and Asian migrant communities as Black peoples’; see John Narayan, ‘British black power: The anti-imperialism of political blackness and the problem of nativist socialism’, The Sociological Review, 67:5 (2019), 945–967, p. 946.
16 Jenny Bourne, ‘The life and times of institutional racism’, Race & Class, 43:2 (2001), 7–22, p. 12.
17 Narayan, ‘British black power’, p. 945.
18 Paul Gilroy, There Ain't No Black in the Union Jack (London: Routledge, 2002 [1987]), p. 177.
19 For a critical analysis of the limits of seeing racism as confined to the far-Right, see Aurelien Mondon and Aaron Winter, Reactionary Democracy: How Racism and the Populist Far Right Became Mainstream (London: Verso, 2020).
20 Bourne, ‘The life and times of institutional racism’, p. 12.
21 Paul Gilroy, ‘The end of anti-racism’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 17:1 (1990), 71–83, p. 71.
22 For a searing critique of these trends, see Benjamin Zephaniah, The Race Industry, available at: https://benjaminzephaniah.com/rhymin/talking-turkeys-2/ [accessed 4 June 2021].
23 Lentin, Racism and Anti-Racism in Europe.
24 Ibid.
25 Liz Fekete, ‘Reclaiming the fight against racism in the UK’, Race & Class, 61:4 (2020), 87–95, p. 90.
26 For example, the Sewell Report has been criticised for its lack of ‘intellectual rigour, academic credibility and stakeholder engagement’, and its gross and disingenuous misrepresentation of evidence; see Runnymede Trust, Sewell Reports: Runnymede Responds, available at: www.runnymedetrust.org/sewell [accessed 4 June 2021].
27 Adam Forrest, ‘Who are the authors behind government's race report?’, The Independent, 31 March 2021, available at: www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/race-commission-report-uk-racism-b1824922.html [accessed 4 June 2021].
28 Institute of Race Relations, IRR: Sewell Report Seeks to Sideline Structural Factors Attached to Racism, available at: https://irr.org.uk/article/irr-responds-to-commission-race-ethnic-disparities-report/ [accessed 4 June 2021].
29 Jasbinder S. Nijjar, ‘Echoes of empire’, Social Justice, 45:2/3 (2018), 147–162.
30 Gilroy, ‘The end of anti-racism’, p. 71.
31 Lentin, Racism and Anti-Racism in Europe, p. 129.
32 Fekete, ‘Reclaiming the fight against racism in the UK’; also see Narayan, ‘British black power’.
33 Initially introduced through a set of policies in 2012, the hostile environment describes a set of measures, policies, and a wider culture that seeks to make life in the UK as hostile as possible for those without ‘leave to remain’. It has had a chilling – sometimes fatal – effect on the lives of migrants and people of colour in the UK; see Maya Goodfellow, Hostile Environment: How Immigrants Became Scapegoats (London: Verso, 2018).
34 Prevent is one of four policy strands of the UK government's counter-terrorism strategy: CONTEST. It was launched in 2003 by the New Labour government with the supposed purpose of countering terrorist ideology by supporting people vulnerable to radicalisation. Its remit was extended in 2015 by the Conservative–Liberal Democrat Coalition government to place a statutory duty on certain institutions (including educational institutions) to report ‘at risk’ individuals. It has been widely condemned for its Islamophobic underpinnings and outcomes; see, for example, Fahid Qurashi, ‘The Prevent strategy and the UK “war on terror”: Embedding infrastructures of surveillance in Muslim communities’, Palgrave Communications, 4:17 (2018).
35 Paul Routledge and Kate Driscoll Derickson, ‘Situated solidarities and the practice of scholar-activism’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 33:3 (2015), 391–407; Susan A. Tilley and Leanne Taylor, ‘Complicating notions of “scholar-activist” in a global context: A discussion paper’, Journal of the International Society for Teacher Education, 18:2 (2014), 53–62.
36 Kate Driscoll Derickson and Paul Routledge, ‘Resourcing scholar-activism: Collaboration, transformation, and the production of knowledge’, The Professional Geographer, 67:1 (2015), 1–7.
37 Autonomous Geographies Collective, ‘Beyond scholar activism: Making strategic practices inside and outside the neoliberal university’, ACME: An International E-Journal for Critical Geographies, 9:2 (2010), 245–274; Ruth W. Gilmore, ‘Public enemies and private intellectuals: Apartheid USA’, Race & Class, 35:1 (1993), 65–78.
38 Patricia Hill Collins, On Intellectual Activism (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2013).
39 Walter Rodney, Walter Rodney Speaks: The Making of an African Intellectual (Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 1990).
40 Stefano Harney and Fred Moten, The Undercommons: Fugitive Planning and Black Study (Brooklyn, NY: Minor Compositions, 2013).
41 Corinne Lennox and Yeşim Yaprak Yildiz, ‘Activist scholarship in human rights’, International Journal of Human Rights, 24:1 (2020), 4–27.
42 Catherine Eschle and Bice Maiguashca, ‘Bridging the academic/activist divide: Feminist activism and the teaching of global politics’, Millennium: Journal of International Studies, 35:1 (2006), 119–137.
43 Colette Cann and Eric DeMeulenaere, The Activist Academic: Engaged Scholarship for Resistance, Hope and Social Change (Gorham, ME: Myers Education Press, 2020); Sandra Grey, ‘Activist academics: What future?’, Policy Futures in Education, 11:6 (2013), 700–711.
44 David Croteau, ‘Which side are you on? The tension between movement scholarship and activism’, in Rhyming Hope and History: Activists, Academics and Social Movement Scholarship, ed. by David Croteau, William Hoynes, and Charlotte Ryan (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2005), 20–40; Kristin Reynolds, Daniel Block, and Katharine Bradley, ‘Food justice scholar-activism and activist-scholarship’, ACME: An International Journal for Critical Geographies, 17:4 (2018), 988–998.
45 Derrick P. Aldridge, ‘W.E.B. Du Bois in Georgia’, New Georgia Encyclopedia, available at: www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/articles/history-archaeology/w-e-b-du-bois-georgia [accessed 4 June 2021].
46 Our use of ‘ignorance’ here seeks to capture something more than the common usage of the term, and instead draws upon Charles Mills's concept of white ignorance to refer to active forms of ignorance that are historically, structurally, and ideologically produced, and productive of white supremacy; see Charles Mills, ‘White ignorance’, in Race and Epistemologies of Ignorance, ed. by Shannon Sullivan and Nancy Tuana (Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 2007), 13–38.
47 Phil Scraton, Power, Conflict and Criminalisation (Abingdon: Routledge, 2007), p. 11.
48 Ambalavaner Sivanandan, ‘Catching history on the wing’, speech given at the Institute of Race Relations 50th celebration conference (2008), transcript available at: www.irr.org.uk/news/catching-history-on-the-wing/ [accessed 4 June 2021].
49 Frantz Fanon, Black Skin, White Masks (London: Pluto, 2008), p. 8.
50 bell hooks, Teaching to Transgress: Education as the Practice of Freedom (London: Routledge, 1994); bell hooks, Feminist Theory: From Margin to Center (Boston, MA: South End Press, 1984).
51 Paulo Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed (London: Continuum, 2005 [1970]), p. 51.
52 Walter Rodney, The Groundings with My Brothers (London: Verso, 2019).
53 Antonio Gramsci, Selections from the Prison Notebooks, ed. and trans. by Quintin Hoare and Geoffrey Nowell-Smith Hoare (New York: International Publishers, 1971).
54 Henry Giroux, David Shumway, Paul Smith, and James Sosnoski, ‘The need for cultural studies: Resisting intellectuals and oppositional public spheres’, Dalhousie Review, 64:2 (1984), 472–486, p. 479.
55 Orlando Fals-Borda, Knowledge and People's Power: Lessons with Peasants in Nicaragua, Mexico and Columbia (New Delhi: Indian Social Institute, 1988); Orlando Fals-Borda and Luis E. Mora-Osejo, ‘Context and diffusion of knowledge: A critique of eurocentrism’, Action Research, 1:1 (2003), 29–37.
56 hooks, Teaching to Transgress; hooks, Feminist Theory.
57 Cited by Claire Alexander (via Lawrence Grossberg) in ‘Stuart Hall and “race”’, Cultural Studies, 23:4 (2009), 457–482.
58 Alexander, ‘Stuart Hall and “race”’.
59 C.L.R. James, The Black Jacobins (New York: Random House, 1964); Cedric Robinson, Black Marxism (London: Zed Press, 1983).
60 Robinson, Black Marxism.
61 Robin D.G. Kelley, ‘Foreword: Between home and street: Andaiye's revolutionary vision’, in The Point is to Change the World: Selected Writings of Andaiye, ed. by Alissa Trotz (London: Pluto, 2020), xxii–xxvii.
62 Patricia Hill Collins, Black Feminist Thought (London: Routledge, 1991), p. 554.
63 Ibid., p. 222; also see Kimberlé Crenshaw, ‘Mapping the margins: Intersectionality, identity politics, and violence against women of colour’, Stanford Law Review, 43:6 (1991), 1241–1299; Heidi Safia Mirza, ‘Plotting a history: Black and postcolonial feminisms in “new times”’, Race, Ethnicity and Education, 12:1 (2009), 1–10.
64 Ann Phoenix and Pamela Pattynama, ‘Editorial: Intersectionality’, European Journal of Women's Studies, 13:3 (2006), 187–192.
65 Adam Elliott-Cooper, ‘“Our life is a struggle”: Respectable gender norms and black resistance to policing’, Antipode: A Radical Journal of Geography, 51:2 (2009), 539–557.
66 Alexander, ‘Stuart Hall and “race”’; Murji, ‘Stuart Hall as a criminological theorist-activist’.
67 Patricia Hill Collins, ‘Truth telling and intellectual activism’, Contexts, 12:1 (2013), 36–41, p. 37.
68 Ibid., p. 38.
69 Harney and Moten, The Undercommons.
70 la paperson, A Third University is Possible (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2017).
71 Harney and Moten, The Undercommons, p. 26.
72 Steven Osuna, ‘Class suicide: The Black Radical tradition, radical scholarship, and the neoliberal turn’, in Futures of Black Radicalism, ed. by Gaye Theresa Johnson and Alex Lubin (London: Verso, 2017), 10–21.
73 Gilmore, ‘Public enemies and private intellectuals’, p. 71.
74 Lennox and Yildiz, ‘Activist scholarship in human rights’; Murji, ‘Stuart Hall as a criminological theorist-activist’.
75 rosalind hampton, Black Racialization and Resistance at an Elite University (Toronto: Toronto University Press, 2020).
76 Osuna, ‘Class suicide’.
77 David Harvey, A Brief History of Neoliberalism (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005), p. 3.
78 Wendy Brown, Undoing the Demos: Neoliberalism's Stealth Revolution (New York: Zone Books, 2015), p. 175.
79 Alpesh Maisuria and Mike Cole, ‘The neoliberalization of higher education in England: An alternative is possible’, Policy Futures in Education, 15:5 (2017), 602–619.
80 Zeena Feldman and Marisol Sandoval, ‘Metric power and the academic self: Neoliberalism, knowledge and resistance in the British university’, Triple C, 16:1 (2018), 214–233; Olssen, ‘Neoliberal competition in higher education today’.
81 John Holmwood, ‘Race and the neoliberal university: Lessons from the public university’, in Decolonising the University, ed. by Gurminder K. Bhambra, Dalia Gebrial, and Kerem Nişancıoğlu (London: Pluto, 2018), 37–52.
82 Margaret Thornton, ‘The mirage of merit’, Australian Feminist Studies, 28:76 (2013), 127–143.
83 Darren Webb, ‘Bolt-holes and breathing spaces in the system: On forms of academic resistance (or, can the university be a site of utopian possibility?)’, Review of Education, Pedagogy and Cultural Studies, 40:2 (2018), 96–118, p. 96.
84 Liz Morrish, ‘The accident of accessibility: How the data of the Teaching Excellence Framework creates neoliberal subjects’, LSE Blogs, 24 September 2019, available at: https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/impactofsocialsciences/2019/09/24/the-accident-of-accessibility-how-the-data-of-the-teaching-excellence-framework-creates-neoliberal-subjects/ [accessed 4 June 2021].
85 Erin Sanders-McDonagh and Carole Davis, ‘Resisting neoliberal policies in UK higher education: Exploring the impact of critical pedagogies on non-traditional students in a post-1992 university’, Education, Citizenship and Social Justice, 13:3 (2018), 217–228.
86 Morrish, ‘The accident of accessibility’.
87 Sanders-McDonagh and Davis, ‘Resisting neoliberal policies’.
88 Feldman and Sandoval, ‘Metric power and the academic self’.
89 The funding councils of the devolved nations are: the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE), the Scottish Funding Council (SFC), the Higher Education Funding Council of Wales (HEFCW), and the Department for the Economy (DfE) in Northern Ireland.
90 Feldman and Sandoval, ‘Metric power and the academic self’, p. 219.
91 John O’Regan and John Gray, ‘The bureaucratic distortion of academic work: A transdisciplinary analysis of the UK Research Excellence Framework in the age of neoliberalism’, Language and Intercultural Communication, 18:5 (2018), 533–548.
92 Olssen, ‘Neoliberal competition in higher education today’.
93 Tom Murphy and Daniel Sage, ‘“Perceptions of the UK's Research Excellence Framework 2014: A media analysis’, Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 36:6 (2014), 603–615.
94 Olssen, ‘Neoliberal competition in higher education today’, p. 135.
95 Liz Morrish, Pressure Vessels: The Epidemic of Poor Mental Health Among Higher Education Staff, HEPI number Occasional Paper 20, available at: www.hepi.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/HEPI-Pressure-Vessels-Occasional-Paper-20.pdf [accessed 6 June 2021].
96 UKRI, REF Impact, available at: https://re.ukri.org/research/ref-impact/ [accessed 6 June 2021].
97 ‘Gaming’ refers to the ways in which institutions artificially optimise their chances in the context of the high-stakes Research Excellence Framework. An example of this is the process by which universities designate (or do not designate) staff as ‘research active’ and therefore enterable into the REF.
98 John Horton, ‘For diffident geographies and modest activisms: Questioning the anything-but-gentle academy’, Area, Special Section (2020), 1–6.
99 Vik Loveday, ‘The neurotic academic: How anxiety fuels casualised academic work’, LSE Blogs, 17 April 2018, available at: https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/impactofsocialsciences/2018/04/17/the-neurotic-academic-how-anxiety-fuels-casualised-academic-work/ [accessed 6 June 2021].
100 Olssen, ‘Neoliberal competition in higher education today’, p. 140.
101 O’Regan and Gray, ‘The bureaucratic distortion of academic work’.
102 Webb, ‘Bolt-holes’, p. 96.
103 Ibid., p. 97.
104 Gurminder K. Bhambra, Kerem Nişancıoğlu, and Dalia Gebrial, ‘Decolonising the university in 2020’, Identities, 27:4 (2020), 509–516.
105 Gurminder K. Bhambra, Dalia Gebrial, and Kerem Nişancıoğlu, ‘Introduction: Decolonising the university?’, in Decolonising the University, ed. by Gurminder K. Bhambra, Dalia Gebrial, and Kerem Nişancıoğlu (London: Pluto, 2018), 1–16, p. 5.
106 Edward Said, Orientalism (New York: Pantheon Books, 1978).
107 Bhambra, Gebrial, and Nişancıoğlu, ‘Introduction: Decolonising the university’, p. 5.
108 Linda Tuhiwai Smith, Decolonizing Methodologies, 2nd ed. (London: Zed Books, 2018), p. 1.
109 Ibid., p. 63.
110 Estelle H. Prinsloo, ‘The role of the humanities in decolonising the academy’, Arts and Humanities in Higher Education, 15:1 (2016), 164–168.
111 Piya Chatterjee and Sunaina Maira, ‘Introduction: The imperial university: Race, war, and the nation-state’, in The Imperial University: Academic Repression and Scholarly Dissent, ed. by Piya Chatterjee and Sunaina Maria (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2014), 1–50.
112 Kristi Carey, ‘On cleaning: Student activism in the corporate and imperial university’, Open Library of Humanities, 2:2 (2016), unpag.
113 Heidi Safia Mirza, ‘Racism in higher education: “What then, can be done?”’, in Dismantling Race in Higher Education: Racism, Whiteness and Decolonising the Academy, ed. by Jason Arday and Heidi Safia Mirza (London: Palgrave, 2018), 3–23; Sian, Navigating Institutional Racism.
114 Nijjar, ‘Echoes of empire’.
115 Stokely Carmichael (Kwame Ture) and Charles Hamilton, Black Power: The Politics of Liberation in America (New York: Random House, 1967), p. 4.
116 Campaign Against Racism and Fascism, What is Institutional Racism?, Institute of Race Relations website, 1 October 1998, available at: https://irr.org.uk/article/what-is-institutional-racism/ [accessed 6 June 2021].
117 Andrew Pilkington, ‘The rise and fall in the salience of race equality in higher education’, in Dismantling Race in Higher Education: Racism, Whiteness and Decolonising the Academy, ed. by Jason Arday and Heidi Safia Mirza (London: Palgrave, 2018), 27–45.
118 UCU, Black Academic Staff Face Double Whammy in Promotion and Pay Stakes, 14 October 2019, available at: www.ucu.org.uk/article/10360/Black-academic-staff-face-double-whammy-in-promotion-and-pay-stake [accessed 6 June 2021].
119 The ‘awarding gap’ refers to the 13% difference between the likelihood of white students and students from Black, Asian, and Minority Ethnic backgrounds getting a First or a 2:1 degree classification. The gap widens further (24%) when we focus on the differences in awarding between white and Black students only; see Universities UK and National Union of Students, Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic Student Attainment at UK Universities: #Closingthegap (London: UUK and NUS, 2019).
120 UKRI is an organisation that brings together the seven disciplinary research councils in the UK, as well as Research England (which supports knowledge exchange in HE) and Innovate UK (the UK's innovation agency).
121 Paulette Williams, Sukhi Bath, Jason Arday, and Chantelle Lewis, The Broken Pipeline: Barriers to Black PhD Students Accessing Research Council Funding (London: Leading Routes, 2019).
122 Sian, Navigating Institutional Racism, p. 72.
123 David Theo Goldberg, Are We All Postracial Yet? (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2015).
124 Mirza, ‘Racism in higher education’, p. 4.
125 Shaun R. Harper, ‘Race without racism: How higher education researchers minimize racist institutional norms’, Review of Higher Education, 36:1 (2012), 9–29.
126 The Australian Research Council is responsible for administering its research evaluation framework: Excellence in Research in Australia (ERA). FOKUS is used by the Swedish Research Council as a model for ‘quality based research allocation’. There are similar examples in places like Canada, and there are parallels too with the tenure system in the United States. More broadly, metric culture dominates much of the Western HE.
127 Azeezat Johnson, ‘An academic witness: White supremacy within and beyond academia’, in The Fire Now: Anti-Racist Scholarship in Times of Explicit Racial Violence, ed. by Azeezat Johnson, Remi Joseph-Salisbury, and Beth Kamunge (London: Zed, 2018), 15–25; Smith, Decolonizing Methodologies.
128 Sivanandan, Communities of Resistance.
129 Harney and Moten, The Undercommons.
130 The International Network of Scholars and Activists for Afrikan Reparations (INOSAAR), Global Report, available at: www.inosaar.llc.ed.ac.uk/sites/default/files/atoms/files/inosaar_global_report_sept_2019_final.pdf [accessed 6 June 2021].
131 Bonnett, Anti-Racism; Anoop Nayak, ‘“White English ethnicities”: Racism, anti-racism and student perspectives’, Race, Ethnicity and Education, 2:2 (1999), 177–202; George Yancy, Backlash: What Happens When We Talk Honestly About Racism in America (London: Rowman & Littlefield, 2018).
132 David Gillborn, ‘White lies: Things we're told about race and education that aren't true (Part 2)’, Leeds Beckett Annual Race Lecture 2016, available at: www.youtube.com/watch?v=4Ma7oM46b2g&t=475s [accessed 6 June 2021].
133 Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, Critique of Postcolonial Reason (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999).
134 Sara Ahmed, ‘Declarations of whiteness: The non-performativity of anti-racism’, Borderlands, 3:4 (2004), unpag.
135 Back, Academic Diary.

Chapter 1 – Problematising the ‘scholar-activist’ label: uneasy identifications

1 Carol L. Glasser and Arpan Roy, ‘The ivory trap: Bridging the gap between activism and the academy’, Counterpoints, 448 (2014), 89–109.
2 Sara Ahmed, ‘The non-performativity of anti-racism’, Meridians, 7:1 (2006), 104–126.
3 Judith Butler, Bodies that Matter: On the Discursive Limits of Sex (London: Routledge, 1993), p. 2; also see Bridget Byrne, ‘Troubling race: Using Judith Butler's work to think about racialised bodies and selves’, Queering Development, IDS Seminar Series, available at: www.ids.ac.uk/download.php?file=files/dmfile/byrne.pdf [accessed 6 June 2021].
4 Tilley and Taylor, ‘Complicating notions of “scholar-activist” in a global context’.
5 Sivanandan, Communities of Resistance.
6 Chris Bobel, ‘“I'm not an activist, though I've done a lot of it”: Doing activism, being activist and the “perfect standard” in a contemporary movement’, Social Movement Studies, 6:2 (2007), 147–159, p. 148.
7 Tammy Castle and Danielle McDonald, ‘Intellectual activism and public engagement: Strategies for academic resistance’, Justice, Power and Resistance, 1:1 (2017), 127–133.
8 Reynolds, Block, and Bradley, ‘Food justice scholar-activism’.
9 Jason Arday, Exploring Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) Doctoral Students’ Perceptions of an Academic Career (London: UCU, 2017), available at: www.ucu.org.uk/media/8633/BME-doctoral-students-perceptions-of-an-academic-career/pdf/JA_BME_doc_students_report_Jun17.pdf [accessed 6 June 2021].
10 Sian, Navigating Institutional Racism; Nicola Rollock, Staying Power: The Career Experiences and Strategies of UK Black Female Professors (London: UCU, 2019), available at: www.ucu.org.uk/media/10075/Staying-Power/pdf/UCU_Rollock_February_2019.pdf [accessed 6 June 2021].
11 We introduce the concept of a matrix of domination in the book's Introduction. The matrix of domination captures how systems of oppression – such as race, class, gender, sexuality, disability, nationality, and others – interlock to form an overarching system of domination; see Collins, Black Feminist Thought.
12 Whilst this framing might be troubled by the professionalisation of many contemporary activisms, we assume that Barry is deploying a narrower and more idealistic definition of who and what constitutes an activist. It is worth noting, though, that there is often a classed aspect to who is able to do ‘shit for free’.
13 Ana Lopes and Indra Dewan, ‘Precarious pedagogies? The impact of casual and zero-hour contracts in higher education’, Journal of Feminist Scholarship, 7:8 (2014), 28–42; UCU, Precarious Work in Higher Education: A Snapshot of Insecure Contracts and Institutional Attitudes (London: UCU, 2016), available at: www.ucu.org.uk/media/7995/Precarious-work-in-higher-education-a-snapshot-of-insecure-contracts-and-institutional-attitudes-Apr-16/pdf/ucu_precariouscontract_hereport_apr16.pdf [accessed 6 June 2021].
14 Madeline Bodin, ‘University redundancies, furloughs and pay cuts might loom amid the pandemic, survey finds’, Nature, 30 July 2020, available at: www.nature.com/articles/d41586-020-02265-w [accessed 6 June 2021]; Anna McKie, ‘UK universities cutting jobs accused of exploiting pandemic’, Times Higher Education, 1 February 2021, available at: www.timeshighereducation.com/news/uk-universities-cutting-jobs-accused-exploiting-pandemic [accessed 6 June 2021].
15 Unis Resist Border Controls, The Hostile Environment Policy has Extended the Border into UK universities (no date), available at: www.unisresistbordercontrols.org.uk/facts/ [accessed 6 June 2021]; see note 33 in the Introduction for a brief description of the hostile environment.
16 Emma Craddock, ‘Doing “enough” of the “right” thing: The gendered dimension of the “ideal activist” identity and its negative emotional consequences’, Social Movement Studies, 18:2 (2019), 137–153.
17 Lara Coleman and Serena Bassi, ‘Deconstructing militant manhood’, International Feminist Journal of Politics, 13:2 (2011), 204–224; Abigail Bakan, ‘Marxism, feminism, and epistemological dissonance’, Socialist Studies, 8:2 (2012), 60–84.
18 Jonathan Dean and Bice Maiguashca, ‘Gender, power, and Left politics: From feminization to “feministization”’, Politics & Gender, 14:3 (2018), 376–406.
19 Collins, On Intellectual Activism; Remi Joseph-Salisbury, ‘Confronting my duty as an academic: We should all be activists’, in The Fire Now: Anti-Racist Scholarship in Times of Explicit Racial Violence, ed. by Azeezat Johnson, Remi Joseph-Salisbury, and Beth Kamunge (London: Zed, 2018), 44–55.
20 Leon Sealey-Huggins, ‘Depoliticised activisms? Ambivalences and pragmatism at the COP16’, International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 63:9/10 (2016), 695–710.
21 Osuna, ‘Class suicide’.
22 W.E.B. Du Bois, The Talented Tenth, Teaching American History website, available at: https://teachingamericanhistory.org/library/document/the-talented-tenth/ [accessed 6 June 2021], unpag.
23 Kehinde Andrews, Back to Black: Retelling Black Radicalism for the 21st Century (London: Zed Books, 2018).
24 Juan Battle and Earl Wright II, ‘W.E.B. Du Bois's talented tenth: A quantitative assessment’, Journal of Black Studies, 32:6 (2002), 654–672, p. 656.
25 Collins, Black Feminist Thought.
26 Aziz Choudry, ‘Reflections on academia, activism, and the politics of knowledge and learning’, International Journal of Human Rights, 24:1 (2020), 28–45, p. 31.
27 Ibid.
28 Ahmed, ‘The non-performativity of anti-racism’.
29 There are a wider set of issues surrounding the co-optation of decolonization, particularly due to the erasure of its historical invocation to refer to indigenous struggles over land, sovereignty, and livelihoods; see Eve Tuck and K. Wayne Yang, ‘Decolonization is not a metaphor’, Decolonization: Indigeneity, Education & Society, 1:1 (2012), 1–40.
30 Sadhvi Dar, Angela Martinez Dy, and Jenny Rodriguez, Is Decolonizing the New Black?, Sisters of Resistance website, 12 July 2018, available at: https://sistersofresistance.wordpress.com/2018/07/12/is-decolonizing-the-new-black/ [accessed 6 June 2021], unpag.
31 Ibid.
32 Ibid.
33 Ahmed, ‘The non-performativity of anti-racism’, p. 117.
34 As we explore more in Chapter 4, for some academics the scholar-activist identity is far from desirable. Indeed, some ‘traditional’ academics view those engaged in scholar-activism as not being objective enough, being too political and/or too emotional, leading to a hostile experience of academia.
35 Kayla Abrams, Jemima Fregene, and Lana Awadallah, ‘Discourse and debate: Is performative activism inherently bad?’, Columbia Spectator, 26 March 2019, available at: www.columbiaspectator.com/opinion/2019/03/27/discourse-and-debate-is-performative-activism-inherently-bad/ [accessed 6 June 2021], unpag.
36 Ahmed, ‘The non-performativity of anti-racism’.
37 Rodney, The Groundings.
38 Dar, Dy, and Rodriguez, Is Decolonizing the New Black?
39 Bakan, ‘Marxism, feminism, and epistemological dissonance’.
40 Gilmore, ‘Public enemies and private intellectuals’, p. 71.
41 Kevin Hylton, ‘Talk the talk, walk the walk: Defining Critical Race Theory in research’, Race, Ethnicity and Education, 15:1 (2012), 23–41, p. 28.
42 Bobel, ‘“I'm not an activist”’, p. 153.
43 Myfanwy Taylor, ‘“Being useful” after the ivory tower: Combining research and activism with the Brixton Pound’, Area, 46:3 (2014), 305–312; Craddock, ‘Doing “enough”’.
44 Taylor, ‘“Being useful” after the ivory tower’, p. 307.
45 Bobel, ‘“I'm not an activist”’; Danielle K. Cortese, ‘I'm a “good” activist, you're a “bad” activist, and everything I do is activism: Parsing the different types of “activist” identities in LBGTQ organizing’, Interface, 7:1 (2015), 215–246.
46 Whilst many of us engaged in scholar-activism experience a relative lack of surveillance and criminalisation compared to non-academic activists, it is essential that we continue to be attentive to the heterogeneity in our experiences. Mediated by the matrix of domination, as well as the nature and approach of our scholar-activism, there are examples of participants in this project and beyond who, through things like counter-terrorism policy, are the subject of significant surveillance and who face the threat of criminalisation.
47 Taylor, ‘“Being useful” after the ivory tower’.
48 Bobel, ‘“I'm not an activist”’, p. 154.
49 Ibid.
50 Daiyu Suzuki and Edwin Mayorga, ‘Scholar-activism: A twice told tale’, Multicultural Perspectives, 16:1 (2014), 16–20, p. 17.
51 See Boaventura de Sousa Santos, Epistemologies of the South (London: Routledge, 2014).

Chapter 2 – Working in service: accountability, usefulness, and accessibility

1 Sivanandan, Communities of Resistance; Sivanandan, ‘Catching history on the wing’; Arun Kundnani, ‘Introduction’, in Communities of Resistance, by Sivanandan, xiii–xxii.
2 Sivanandan, Communities of Resistance.
3 For a discussion of the history of IRR, and specifically its transformation, see Liz Fekete, ‘A brief history of the Institute of Race Relations’, Surviving Society Podcast, available at: https://soundcloud.com/user-622675754/s1e1-liz-fekete-a-brief-hsitory-of-the-institute-of-race-relations [accessed 6 June 2021].
4 Sivanandan, Communities of Resistance.
5 Ibid., unpag [emphasis added].
6 Sivanandan's position outside of the university is worth noting here because it underlines how academics can and should learn lessons from those operating outside of academia. This point is particularly salient because many of our respondents noted that Sivanandan influenced their own praxis. It is also worth noting this point because the context of the university may raise particular questions for what it means to work in service – that is to say, we do not want to take for granted the applicability of Sivanandan's words to other contexts. With this in mind, we draw upon the insights of our participants later in the chapter (and elsewhere in the book) to consider how the notion of working in service can apply to those employed by universities.
7 Gargi Bhattacharyya, Satnam Virdee, and Aaron Winter, ‘Revisiting histories of anti-racist thought and activism’, Identities, 27:1 (2020), 1–19.
8 Sivanandan, Communities of Resistance.
9 Frantz Fanon, The Wretched of the Earth (New York: Grove Press, 2004 [1963]), p. 1.
10 Walter Rodney cited by Osuna, ‘Class suicide’, p. 37.
11 Osuna, ‘Class suicide’.
12 Collins, On Intellectual Activism, p. ix.
13 Horton, ‘For diffident geographies and modest activisms’.
14 Olssen, ‘Neoliberal competition in higher education today’.
15 Dave Beer, Metric Power (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016).
16 Osuna, ‘Class suicide’.
17 Fekete, ‘A brief history of the Institute of Race Relations’.
18 Alvaro Huerta, ‘Viva the scholar-activist’, Inside Higher Ed, 30 March 2018, available at: www.insidehighered.com/advice/2018/03/30/importance-being-scholar-activist-opinion [accessed 6 June 2021], unpag.
19 Osuna, ‘Class suicide’, p. 38.
20 Ibid., p. 24.
21 Ulrich Oslender and Bernd Reiter, ‘Introduction’, in Bridging Scholarship and Activism: Reflections from the Frontlines of Collaborative Research, ed. by Bernd Reiter and Ulrich Oslender (East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press, 2019), ix–xx.
22 Harney and Moten, The Undercommons, p. 26.
23 Ibid.
24 Osuna, ‘Class suicide’; Amílcar Cabral, Unity and Struggle: Speeches and Writing of Amilcar Cabral (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1979).
25 Laura Pulido, ‘Frequently (un)asked questions about being a scholar activist’, in Engaging Contradictions: Theory, Politics, and Methods of Activist Scholarship, ed. by Charles R. Hale (Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press, 2009), 341–366.
26 Mark Deuze, ‘Journalism in liquid modern times: An interview with Zygmunt Bauman’, Journalism Studies, 8:4 (2007), 671–679, p. 674.
27 Kelley, Freedom Dreams.
28 We argue elsewhere that, given that the expansion of policing and prisons in recent years has not improved community safety, we should defund the police and invest instead in community infrastructure and education, health and social care; see Remi Joseph-Salisbury, Laura Connelly, and Peninah Wangari-Jones, ‘“The UK is not innocent”: Black Lives Matter, policing and abolition in the UK’, Equality, Diversity and Inclusion, 40:1 (2021), 21–28.
29 Pulido, ‘Frequently (un)asked questions’, p. 357.
30 Feldman and Sandoval, ‘Metric power and the academic self’.
31 Morrish, Pressure Vessels; Loveday, ‘The neurotic academic’.
32 Horton, ‘For diffident geographies and modest activisms’.
33 Pulido, ‘Frequently (un)asked questions’, p. 251.
34 Collins, On Intellectual Activism, p. 43 [emphasis in original].
35 Gramsci, Prison Notebooks, p. 10.
36 Becky Clarke, Kathryn Chadwick, and Patrick Williams, ‘Critical social research as a “site of resistance”: Reflections on relationships, power and positionality’, Justice, Power and Resistance, 1:2 (2017), 261–282, pp. 266–267.
37 Choudry, ‘Reflections on academia, activism’, p. 35.
38 Ornette Clennon, ‘Scholar activism as a nexus between research, community activism and civil rights via the use of participatory arts’, International Journal of Human Rights, 24:1 (2020), 46–61; Maria do Mar Pereira, ‘Struggle within and beyond the performative university: Articulating activism and work in an “academic without walls”’, Women's Studies International Forum, 54 (2016), 100–110.
39 Choudry, ‘Reflections on academia, activism’, p. 42; also see Clennon, ‘Scholar activism as a nexus’; Julia Sudbury and Margo Okazawa-Rey, ‘Introduction: Activist scholarship and the neoliberal university after 9/11’, in Antiracism, Feminism, and Social Change, ed. by Julia Sudbury and Margo Okazawa-Rey (London: Routledge, 2009), 1–14.
40 Smith, Decolonizing Methodologies.
41 Choudry, ‘Reflections on academia, activism’, p. 42.
42 Osuna, ‘Class suicide’, p. 36.
43 Fals-Borda, Knowledge and People's Power; Fals-Borda and Mora-Osejo, ‘Context and diffusion of knowledge’; Rodney, The Groundings.
44 Osuna, ‘Class suicide’.
45 Choudry, ‘Reflections on academia, activism’, p. 36.
46 Olssen, ‘Neoliberal competition in higher education today’.
47 Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities (London: Verso, 1983); Sivanandan, Communities of Resistance.
48 João H. Costa Vargas, ‘Activist scholarship: Limits and possibilities in times of black genocide’, in Engaging Contradictions: Theory, Politics and Methods of Activist Scholarship, ed. by Charles R. Hale (Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press, 2008), 164–182, p. 166.
49 Andreas Wimmer and Nina Glick Schiller, ‘Methodological nationalism and beyond: Nation-state building, migration and the social sciences’, Global Networks, 2:4 (2002), 301–334.
50 Carmichael and Hamilton, Black Power, p. xi.
51 Narayan, ‘British black power’.
52 Collins, On Intellectual Activism.
53 Grey, ‘Activist academics’.
54 What, How & For Whom, Really Useful Knowledge (Madrid: Museo Reina Sofía, 2014), available at: https://monoskop.org/images/9/94/Really_Useful_Knowledge_2014.pdf [accessed 6 June 2021], p. 19
55 Richard Johnson, ‘“Really useful knowledge”, 1790–1850’, in Culture and Processes of Adult Learning, ed. by Richard Edwards, Ann Hanson, and Mary Thorpe (London: Routledge, 1993), 17–29.
56 Tunde Adeleke, ‘Guerilla intellectualism: Walter A Rodney and the weapon of knowledge in the struggle for black liberation’, Journal of Thought, 35:1 (2000), 37–59, pp. 41–42.
57 Thomas Mathiesen, Silently Silenced: Essays on the Construction of Acquiescence in Modern Society (Winchester: Waterside, 2004), p. 78.
58 Lennox and Yildiz, ‘Activist scholarship in human rights’, p. 8.
59 George Yancy, ‘Afterword’, in The Fire Now: Anti-Racist Scholarship in Times of Explicit Racial Violence, ed. by Azeezat Johnson, Remi Joseph-Salisbury, and Beth Kamunge (London: Zed, 2018), 266–274, p. 271.
60 Joy James, ‘Academia, activism, and imprisoned intellectuals’, Social Justice, 30:2 (2003), 3–7, p. 5.
61 Routledge and Derickson, ‘Situated solidarities’, p. 396.
62 See Robinson, Black Marxism; Gargi Bhattacharyya, Adam Elliott-Cooper, Sita Balan, Kerem Nişancıoğlu, Kojo Koram, Dalia Gebrial, Nadine El-Enany, and Luke de Noronha, Empire's Endgame: Racism and the British State (London: Pluto Press, 2021).
63 Michael Flood, Brian Martin, and Tanja Dreher, ‘Combining academia and activism: Common obstacles and useful tools’, Australian Universities Review, 55:1 (2013), 17–26.
64 Kwame Ture, Stokely Speaks: From Black Power to Pan-Africanism (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 2007); Angela Y. Davis, Freedom is a Constant Struggle (Chicago: Haymarket Books, 2016); Josh Virasami, How to Change it (London: Merky Books, 2020); Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed.
65 Collins, On Intellectual Activism, p. 42.
66 Choudry, ‘Reflections on academia, activism’, p. 29.
67 Ibid.
68 Alexander, ‘Stuart Hall and “race”’.
69 Castle and McDonald, ‘Intellectual activism and public engagement’.
70 Derickson and Routledge, ‘Resourcing scholar-activism’; Choudry, ‘Reflections on academia, activism’; Clarke, Chadwick, and Williams, ‘Critical social research’.
71 Gargi Bhattacharyya, ‘How can we live with ourselves? Universities and the attempt to reconcile learning and doing’, Ethnic and Racial Studies, 36:9 (2013), 1411–1428.
72 Castle and McDonald, ‘Intellectual activism and public engagement’, p. 128.
73 Gurminder Bhambra, Connected Sociologies (London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2014); Sujata Patel, ‘Is there a “South” perspective in Urban Studies?’, in Routledge Handbook on Cities of the Global South, ed. by Sue Parnell and Sophie Oldfield (London: Routledge, 2014), 37–47.
74 Theresa Lillis and Mary Jane Curry, Academic Writing in a Global Context: The Politics and Practices of Publishing in English (New York: Routledge, 2010); Patel, ‘Is there a “South” perspective’; Smith, Decolonizing Methodologies.
75 Asit K. Biswas and Julian Kirchher, ‘Prof, no one is reading you’, The Straits Times, 11 April 2014, available at: www.straitstimes.com/opinion/prof-no-one-is-reading-you [accessed 6 June 2021].
76 Collins, On Intellectual Activism, p. 41.
77 Barder cited by Duncan Green, ‘Whatever happened to the Academic Spring? Publishing academic work behind paywalls is more than an inconvenience’, LSE Blogs, 12 August 2013, available at: https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/impactofsocialsciences/2013/08/12/whatever-happened-to-the-academic-spring-green/ [accessed 6 June 2021].
78 Collins, On Intellectual Activism, p. xiii.
79 Ibid.
80 Bhattacharyya, ‘How can we live with ourselves?’, pp. 1425–1426.
81 Sivamohan Valluvan, The Clamour of Nationalism (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2019), p. 26.
82 Glenn Jordan, ‘Stuart Hall as a public intellectual’, Institute of Welsh Affairs, 27 October 2013, available at: www.iwa.wales/agenda/2013/10/stuart-hall-as-a-public-intellectual/ [accessed 6 June 2021].
83 Jessie Daniel and Polly Thistlewaite, Being a Scholar in the Digital Era: Transforming Scholarly Practice for the Public Good (Bristol: Bristol University Press, 2016); Michael Eric Dyson, ‘Thinking out loud’, New Republic, 10 September 2015, available at: https://newrepublic.com/article/122756/think-out-loud-emerging-black-digital-intelligentsia [accessed 6 June 2021]; Stephen J. Quaye, Mahauganee D. Shaw, and Dominique C. Hill, ‘Blending scholar and activist identities: Establishing the need for scholar activism’, Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, 10:4 (2017), 381–399; Collins, On Intellectual Activism.
84 Dyson, ‘Thinking out loud’, unpag.
85 Kelley, Freedom Dreams.
86 Collins, On Intellectual Activism, p. x.
87 Natalie Fenton, Digital, Political, Radical (Cambridge and Malden, MA: Polity, 2016), p. 127.
88 Bhattacharyya et al., Empire's Endgame, p. 15.
89 Richard Seymour, ‘We are witnessing the end of the “Twitter Revolution”’, New Statesman, 27 November 2019, available at: www.newstatesman.com/science-tech/social-media/2019/11/we-are-witnessing-end-twitter-revolution [accessed 6 June 2021].
90 Casey Brienza, ‘Opening the wrong gate? The Academic Spring and scholarly publishing in the Humanities and Social Sciences’, Publishing Research Quarterly, 28:3 (2012), 159–171, p. 168; Tanner Mirrlees and Shahid Alvi, EdTech Inc.: Selling, Automating and Globalizing Higher Education in the Digital Age (London: Routledge, 2020).
91 George Lipsitz, ‘What is this black in the Black Radical tradition?’, in Futures of Black Radicalism, ed. by Gaye Theresa Johnson and Alex Lubin (London: Verso, 2017), 108–119.
92 Jeffrey Ghannam, Social Media in the Arab World: Leading up to the Uprisings of 2011 (Washington: Center for International Media Assistance, 2011).
93 Zeynep Tufekci and Christopher Wilson, ‘Social media and the decision to participate in political protest: Observations from Tahrir Square’, Journal of Communication, 62:2 (2012), 363–379.
94 Kaitlynn Mendes, Jessica Ringrose, and Jessalynn Keller, ‘#MeToo and the promise and pitfalls of challenging rape culture through digital feminist activism’, European Journal of Women's Studies, 25:2 (2018), 236–246; Alison Phipps, Me, Not You: The Trouble with Mainstream Feminism (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2020).
95 Monica Anderson, Skye Toor, Lee Rainie, and Aaron Smith, ‘Activism in the social media age’, Pew Research Center, 11 July 2018, available at: www.pewresearch.org/internet/2018/07/11/activism-in-the-social-media-age/ [accessed 6 June 2021].
96 Mendes, Ringros, and Keller, ‘#MeToo’; Remi Joseph-Salisbury, ‘“Does anybody really care what a racist says?” Anti-racism in “post-racial” times’, Sociological Review, 67:1 (2019), 63–78.
97 Cathy O’Neill, Weapons of Math Destruction: How Big Data Increases Inequality and Threatens Democracy (New York: Crown Publishers, 2016); Safiya Noble, Algorithms of Oppression: How Search Engines Reinforce Racism (New York: NYU Press, 2018); Yarden Katz, Artificial Whiteness: Politics and Ideology in Artificial Intelligence (New York: Columbia University Press, 2020); Ruha Benjamin, Race After Technology: Abolitionist Tools for the New Jim Code (Medford, MA: Polity Press, 2019).
98 Michael Kwet, ‘Digital colonialism: US empire and the new imperialism in the Global South’, Race & Class, 60:4 (2019), 3–26, p. 3.
99 Collins, On Intellectual Activism, p. xiii.

Chapter 3 – Reparative theft: stealing from the university

1 Sivanandan, Communities of Resistance.
2 By way of illustration, the University of Manchester had an annual income of more than £1 billion in 2018–19, not far short of the combined revenues of the two major sporting brands of the same city, Manchester United and Manchester City football clubs; see Rowan Moore, ‘The free-market gamble: Has Covid broken UK universities?’, Observer, 17 January 2021, available at: www.theguardian.com/education/2021/jan/17/free-market-gamble-has-covid-broken-uk-universities [accessed 6 June 2021]; University of Manchester, Financial Statements 2019, available at: https://documents.manchester.ac.uk/display.aspx?DocID=46451 [accessed 6 June 2021], p. 31.
3 John D. McCarthy and Mayer N. Zald, ‘Resource mobilization and social movements: A partial theory’, American Journal of Sociology, 82:6 (1977), 1212–1241.
4 Harney and Moten, The Undercommons.
5 Ibid., p. 26.
6 Ibid., p. 26.
7 Janet Newman, Working the Spaces of Power: Activism, Neoliberalism and Gendered Labour (London: Bloomsbury, 2012).
8 Harney and Moten, The Undercommons, p. 26.
9 Lennox and Yildiz, ‘Activist scholarship in human rights’, p. 8.
10 Harney and Moten, The Undercommons, p. 26.
11 Ibid., p. 33.
12 Davarian Baldwin, ‘Scholars for social justice – Reparations in higher education part 1’, Scholars for Social Justice, available at: http://scholarsforsocialjustice.com/the-university-as-neighbor/ [accessed 6 June 2021]; Adom Getachew, ‘Reparations 2020?’ Scholars for Social Justice, available at: https://scholarsforsocialjustice.com/__reparations/ [accessed 6 June 2021]; hampton, Black Racialization and Resistance.
13 Nathaniel Tobias Coleman, ‘Eugenics: “The academy's complicity”’, Times Higher Education, 9 October 2014, available at: www.timeshighereducation.com/comment/opinion/eugenics-the-academys-complicity/2016190.article [accessed 6 June 2021]; Robbie Shilliam, ‘Behind the Rhodes statue: Empire and the British Academy, Race Ed, available at: www.race.ed.ac.uk/recorded-events/ [accessed 6 June 2021].
14 Collins, Black Feminist Thought, p. 222.
15 Christina Sharpe, In the Wake: On Blackness and Being (London: Duke University Press, 2016).
16 Harney and Moten, The Undercommons, p. 31.
17 INOSAAR, Global Report, pp. 4–5.
18 Ibid.; whilst this short definition suffices for our purposes in this chapter, INOSAAR's report, and their wider activities, provide a useful starting point for those interested in the rich history and present of the movement for African reparations.
19 Despite welcoming ‘reparation’ initiatives, critics have quite rightly problematised the parameters of the ‘reparations’ that Glasgow are offering. Heuchan, for example, notes that the development of a research centre is ‘unlikely to do any tangible, material good in the lives of people who are still harmed by the legacy of the transatlantic slave trade’; Claure Heuchan, ‘If Glasgow University is serious about slavery reparations, it would pay those still affected’, HuffPost, 23 August 2019, available at: www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/entry/university-glasgow-reparations-slave-trade_uk_5d5fdea1e4b0dfcbd48c3065 [accessed 6 June 2021].
20 la paperson, A Third University.
21 INOSAAR, Global Report, p. 12.
22 Andrews, Back to Black.
23 Harney and Moten, The Undercommons; la paperson, A Third University; Osuna, ‘Class suicide’.
24 Baldwin, ‘Reparations in higher education’.
25 Harney and Moten, The Undercommons.
26 As Walter Rodney pronounced, the ‘guerrilla intellectual’ must rid themselves of the ‘Babylonian captivity of bourgeois society’; see Adeleke, ‘Guerilla intellectualism’, p. 41.
27 Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed.
28 Bhattacharyya, ‘How can we live with ourselves?’, p. 1471.
29 Webb, ‘Bolt-holes’, p. 99.
30 Derickson and Routledge, ‘Resourcing scholar-activism’, p. 2.
31 Grey, ‘Activist academics’; McCarthy and Zald, ‘Resource mobilization’.
32 As discussed in earlier chapters, through its Impact Agenda, the UK Research Excellence Framework's exercise attempts to measure the impact of research outside of academia. The REF defines Impact as ‘an effect on, change or benefit to the economy, society, culture, public policy or services, health, the environment or quality of life, beyond academia’; see UKRI, REF Impact. We discussed the limits and problems with the REF Impact agenda in the Introduction.
33 Laura Connelly and Teela Sanders, ‘Disrupting the boundaries of the academe: Co-creating knowledge and sex work “academic-activism”’, in The Emerald Handbook of Feminism, Criminology and Social Change, ed. by Sandra Walklate, Kate Fitz-Gibbon, JaneMaree Maher, and Jude McCulloch (Leeds: Emerald, 2020), 203–218. Similar issues can arise with other marginalised groups too, such as those whose migration status renders them vulnerable to the nationalist whims of the State.
34 See note 33 in the Introduction for a brief description of the hostile environment.
35 Grey, ‘Activist academics’.
36 Of course, many of those we spoke to engaged in activism in addition to their academic work, regardless of whether the two were tied.
37 O’Regan and Gray, ‘The bureaucratic distortion of academic work’; Murphy and Sage, ‘Perceptions of the UK's Research Excellence Framework’; Nicholas Stern, Research Excellence Framework Review (Stern Review) (London: Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy, 2016).
38 la paperson, A Third University.
39 Webb, ‘Bolt-holes’.
40 Noam Chomsky, ‘The responsibility of intellectuals’, New York Review of Books, 23 February 1967, available at: https://chomsky.info/19670223/ [accessed 6 June 2021].
41 Webb, ‘Bolt-holes’.
42 Osuna, ‘Class suicide’.
43 Harney and Moten, The Undercommons, p. 26.
44 Choudry, ‘Reflections on academia, activism’, p. 34.
45 Baldwin, ‘Reparations in higher education’.
46 Resistance Lab is an ongoing collaboration between tech experts and scholars, activists, and grassroots community groups working to confront state violence in Greater Manchester (see resistancelab.network).
47 Northern Police Monitoring Project (NPMP) is an independent grassroots organisation working to build community resistance in Greater Manchester to police harassment, violence, and racism. Whilst providing support to over-policed communities in the immediate term, NPMP is committed to abolitionism (see npolicemonitor.co.uk).
48 Whilst this may be true, it is also important to note the ways in which university spaces are saturated in racialised and classed meanings and, though in different ways, are therefore themselves not neutral.
49 Clennon, ‘Scholar-activism as a nexus’, p. 53.
50 Ibid.
51 Pierre Bourdieu, Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1984).
52 These tensions and contradictions are evident in Pulido's writing. She reflects, with regret, on not ‘utilizing [her] legitimacy as a university professor’ to leverage power for communities of resistance, due to her desire to reject the ‘model of the academic “expert”’; see Pulido, ‘Frequently (un)asked questions’, p. 356.
53 Chomsky, ‘The responsibility of intellectuals’.
54 See Osuna, ‘Class suicide’.
55 Harney and Moten, The Undercommons, p. 26.
56 Collins, Black Feminist Thought.
57 Clarke, Chadwick, and Williams, ‘Critical social research’.
58 Phil Scraton, ‘Bearing witness to the “pain of others”: Researching power, violence and resistance in a women's prison’, International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy, 5:1 (2016), 5–20.
59 Cornel West, Black Prophetic Fire (Boston: Beacon Press, 2014), p. 64.
60 Bhattacharyya, ‘How can we live with ourselves?’, pp. 1419–1420; also see Michael Keith, ‘Public sociology? Between heroic immersion and critical distance: personal reflections on academic engagement with political life’, Critical Social Policy, 28:3 (2008), 320–334.
61 Harney and Moten, The Undercommons.
62 Eschle and Maiguashca, ‘Bridging the academic/activist divide’.
63 Harney and Moten, The Undercommons.

Chapter 4 – Backlash: opposition to anti-racist scholar-activism within the academy

1 Eric Herring, ‘Remaking the mainstream: The case for activist IR scholarship’, Millennium: Journal of International Studies, 35:1 (2006), 105–118, p. 117.
2 Harney and Moten, The Undercommons, p. 26.
3 Suzuki and Mayorga, ‘Scholar-activism: A twice told tale’, p. 19.
4 In this chapter, we do not focus on the backlash that occurs outside of the academy. It is, however, worth noting that some academics who might be understood as anti-racist scholar-activists have been subjected to mainstream and social media backlash, including Kehinde Andrews and Adam Elliott-Cooper (both frequent targets of the Daily Mail), and Priyamvada Gopal. As we will discuss, George Yancy is a particularly pertinent example in the United States.
5 Nayak, ‘“White English ethnicities”’; Yancy, Backlash; Bonnett, Anti-Racism; Keith Aoki, ‘The scholarship of reconstruction and the politics of backlash’, Iowa Law Review, 81:5 (1995), 1467–1488.
6 Collins, Black Feminist Thought.
7 Aoki, ‘Politics of backlash’, p. 1468.
8 Mirza, ‘Racism in higher education’; Sian, Navigating Institutional Racism; Katy Sian, ‘Being black in a white world: Understanding racism in British universities’, Papeles del CEIC: International Journal on Collective Identity Research, 2:176 (2017), 1–26; Rollock, Staying Power; Shirley Anne Tate and Paul Bagguley, ‘Building the anti-racist university: Next steps’, Race, Ethnicity and Education, 20:3 (2017), 289–299; Remi Joseph-Salisbury, ‘Institutionalised whiteness, racial microaggressions and black bodies out of place in higher education’, Whiteness and Education, 4:1 (2019), 1–17; Jason Arday and Heidi Safia Mirza (eds), Dismantling Race in Higher Education (London: Palgrave, 2018).
9 Nirmal Puwar, Space Invaders: Race, Gender and Bodies Out of Place (Oxford: Berg, 2004).
10 In Empire's Endgame, Bhattacharyya and colleagues unpack the limits of such representational politics, not least for the presupposition of the value of calls for increased representation (or diversity) in institutions, in this case the university; see Bhattacharyya et al., Empire's Endgame.
11 Karis Campion, ‘Universities must not forget about BAME students during this crisis’, WONKHE, 15 May 2020, available at: https://wonkhe.com/blogs/universities-must-not-forget-about-bame-students-during-this-crisis/#:~:text=Evidence%20shows%20that%20while%20there,students%20is%2013.4%20percentage%20points [accessed 7 June 2021].
12 Puwar, Space Invaders, p. 8.
13 Ibid.
14 Faludi in Aoki, ‘Politics of backlash’.
15 Bonnett, Anti-Racism; Nayak, ‘“White English ethnicities”’. It is worth noting here that anti-anti-racist backlash comes in a range of forms, with a range of motivations, and from a range of actors across the political spectrum – that is, it is not the preserve of the political Right.
16 George Yancy, ‘Dear White America’, The New York Times: Opinionator, 24 December 2015, available at: https://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/12/24/dear-white-america/ [accessed 7 June 2021].
17 Yancy, Backlash.
18 Ibid.
19 Kalwant Bhopal, White Privilege – The Myth of a Post-Racial Society (Bristol: Bristol University Press, 2018); Shirley Anne Tate, ‘“I can't quite put my finger on it”: Racism's touch’, Ethnicities, 16:1 (2016), 68–85.
20 Ahmed, Feminist Life.
21 Patricia Hill Collins, ‘Learning from the outsider within: The sociological significance of black feminist thought’, Social Problems, 33:6 (1986), S14–S32.
22 Remi Joseph-Salisbury, Claire Alexander, Stephen Ashe, and Karis Campion, ‘Race and ethnicity in British sociology’, British Sociological Association, available at: https://britsoc.co.uk/publications/race-and-ethnicity-in-british-sociology/ [accessed 7 June 2021]; Aldon Morris, The Scholar Denied: W.E.B. Du Bois and the Birth of Modern Sociology (Oakland, CA: University of California Press, 2015).
23 Judith Butler, Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity (London: Routledge, 1999), p. xxvvi.
24 Sara Ahmed, ‘Being in trouble: In the company of Judith Butler’, Lambda Nordica, 2:3 (2015), 179–189, p. 180.
25 Kimberlé Crenshaw, ‘Demarginalizing the intersection of race and sex: A black feminist critique of antidiscrimination doctrine, feminist theory and antiracist politics’, University of Chicago Legal Forum, 1:8 (1989), 139–167, p. 140.
26 Hazel Carby, ‘White woman listen! Black feminism and the boundaries of sisterhood’, in The Empire Strikes Back, ed. by Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies (London: Hutchinson and CCCS, 1982), 212–236; Valerie Amos and Pratibha Parmar, ‘Challenging imperial feminism’, Feminist Review, 17 (1984), 3–19; Phipps, Me, Not You.
27 Natalie Thomlinson, Race, Ethnicity and the Women's Movement in England, 1968–1993 (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2015).
28 This is an issue in activism more widely. For example, Adam Elliott-Cooper notes that ‘Women lead almost every campaign against a black death in police custody in post-2011 England’; see Elliott-Cooper, ‘“Our life is a struggle”’, p. 539.
29 Barbara Applebaum, Being White, Being Good: White Complicity, White Moral Responsibility, and Social Justice Pedagogy (New York: Lexington Books, 2010).
30 Anne duCille, ‘The occult of true black womanhood: Critical demeanor and black feminist studies’, Signs, 19:3 (1994), 591–629, p. 623.
31 Collins, ‘Learning from the outsider within’.
32 Reynolds, Block, and Bradley, ‘Food justice scholar-activism’.
33 Collins, On Intellectual Activism, p. 147.
34 Work that, to some extent, is not counter-hegemonic acts to solidify the status quo. As Howard Zinn puts it, you can't be neutral on a moving train; see Howard Zinn, You Can't be Neutral on a Moving Train: A Personal History of Our Times (Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 2018).
35 Henry Giroux, Neoliberalism's War on Higher Education (Chicago, IL: Haymarket Books, 2014).
36 Charles R. Hale, ‘Introduction’, in Engaging Contradictions: Theory, Politics and Methods of Activist Scholarship, ed. by Charles R. Hale (London: University of California Press, 2008), 1–28, p. 3.
37 Lennox and Yildiz, ‘Activist scholarship in human rights’.
38 William Shankley and Patrick Williams, ‘Minority ethnic groups, policing and criminal justice’, in Ethnicity, Race and Inequality in the UK: The State of the Nation, ed. by Bridget Byrne, Claire Alexander, Omar Khan, James Nazroo, and William Shankley (Bristol: Policy Press, 2020), 51–72.
39 Flood, Martin, and Dreher, ‘Combining academia and activism’, p. 20.
40 la paperson, A Third University.
41 Clarke, Chadwick, and Williams, ‘Critical social research’.
42 Sudbury and Okazawa-Rey, ‘Activist scholarship and the neoliberal university’.
43 Puwar, Space Invaders, p. 8.
44 Joseph-Salisbury, ‘Institutionalised whiteness’.
45 Patricia Hill Collins, ‘The social construction of black feminist thought’, Signs, 14:4 (1989), 745–773; Suryia Nayak, Race, Gender and the Activism of Black Feminist Theory (London: Routledge, 2015); bell hooks, Talking Back: Thinking Feminist, Thinking Black (Boston, MA: South End Press, 1989); Akwugo Emejulu and Francesca Sobande (eds) Black Feminism in Europe (London: Pluto Press, 2019).
46 Quaye, Shaw, and Hill, ‘Blending scholar and activist’, p. 393.
47 As a woman of colour, Ereene embodies the excess that Bill Ashcroft describes: ‘Too much, too long, too many, too subversive, too voluble, too insistent, too loud, too strident, too much-too-much, too complex, too hybrid, too convoluted, too disrespectful, too antagonistic, too insistent, too insistent, too insistent, too repetitive, too paranoid, too … excessive’ (ellipsis in original); see Bill Ashcroft, ‘Excess: Post-colonialism and the verandahs of meaning’, in De-Scribing Empire: Post-Colonialism and Textuality, ed. by Chris Tiffin and Alan Lawson (London: Routledge, 1994), 33–44, p. 33.
48 Sara Ahmed, ‘Rocking the boat: Women of colour as diversity workers’, in Dismantling Race in Higher Education: Racism, Whiteness and Decolonising the Academy, ed. by Jason Arday and Heidi Safia Mirza (London: Palgrave, 2018), 331–348, p. 334.
49 Claire Alexander and William Shankley, ‘Ethnic inequalities in the state education system in England’, in Ethnicity, Race and Inequality in the UK: The State of the Nation, ed. by Bridget Byrne, Claire Alexander, Omar Khan, James Nazroo, and William Shankley (Bristol: Policy Press, 2020), 93–126; see note 34 of the Introduction for a description of Prevent.
50 Anna Fazackerley, ‘“Xenophobia in the system”: University staff launch fightback against hostile environment’, Guardian, 26 November 2019, available at: www.theguardian.com/education/2019/nov/26/university-staff-launch-fightback-against-hostile-environment [accessed 7 June 2021]; Lennox and Yildiz, ‘Activist scholarship in human rights’.
51 Universities UK International, International Facts and Figures 2019, available at: www.universitiesuk.ac.uk/policy-and-analysis/reports/Pages/Intl-facts-figs-19.aspx [accessed 7 June 2021].
52 International and Broke Campaign, ‘The “hostile environment” in British universities’, USS Briefs, 20 June 2018, available at: https://medium.com/ussbriefs/the-hostile-environment-in-british-universities-c8d2c04da064 [accessed 7 June 2021]; see note 33 in the Introduction for a brief description of the hostile environment.
53 Joseph-Salisbury, ‘Does anybody really care?’
54 Harney and Moten, The Undercommons.
55 hampton, Black Racialization and Resistance.
56 Frances Fox Piven, ‘Reflections on scholarship and activism’, Antipode, 42:4 (2010), 806–810, pp. 809–810.
57 Joseph-Salisbury et al., ‘Race and ethnicity in British sociology’.
58 UCU, The Experiences of Black and Minority Ethnic Staff in Further and Higher Education (London: UCU, 2016), available at: www.ucu.org.uk/media/7861/The-experiences-of-black-and-minority-ethnic-staff-in-further-and-higher-education-Feb-16/pdf/BME_survey_report_Feb161.pdf [accessed 7 June 2021].
59 bell hooks, ‘Sisterhood: Political solidarity between women’, Feminist Review, 23 (1986), 125–138, p. 125.
60 Pulido, ‘Frequently (un)asked questions’.

Chapter 5 – Struggle where you are: resistance within and against the university

1 la paperson, A Third University.
2 The UCU is a British trade union for further and higher education; it is the foremost of its kind, with over 130,000 members. UCU has taken industrial action at several points over the last few years – often against pay and pensions, but also in response to precarity, and issues of race and gender inequality.
3 Discussed briefly in Chapter 4, Rhodes Must Fall was a campaign initiated in South Africa, which was taken up at the University of Oxford in the UK. Although the campaign is understood to have focused primarily on demands for the removal of the statue of Cecil Rhodes, it also made wider interventions calling for institutional change; see Joseph-Salisbury, ‘Institutionalised whiteness’.
4 Why is my Curriculum White? was a UK-based campaign emerging in 2014 at University College London, and lasting for several years across several campuses. The campaign drew attention to the whiteness of university curricula, amongst other issues; see UCL, Why is My Curriculum White? (2014), available at: www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dscx4h2l-Pk [accessed 7 June 2021].
5 Cited by Gillborn, ‘White lies’, unpag.
6 Ibid., unpag.
7 Rodney, Walter Rodney Speaks, p. 113.
8 Cited by Gillborn, ‘White lies’, unpag.
9 Davis, Freedom is a Constant Struggle.
10 Chantal Mouffe, For a Left Populism (London: Verso, 2018), p. 61.
11 Davis, Freedom is a Constant Struggle, p. 1.
12 Ibid., p. 2.
13 Michael W. Apple, Education and Power, 2nd ed. (London: Routledge, 1995); Johnson, ‘An academic witness’; Smith, Decolonizing Methodologies.
14 Cabral, Unity and Struggle; Fanon, The Wretched; Rodney, Walter Rodney Speaks; Robinson, Black Marxism; Osuna, ‘Class suicide’.
15 Sara Ahmed, On Being Included: Racism and Diversity in Institutional Life (London: Duke University Press, 2012); Les Back, ‘Ivory towers? The academy and racism’, in Institutional Racism in Higher Education, ed. by Ian Law, Deborah Phillips, and Laura Turney (Stoke on Trent: Trentham Books, 2004), 1–6; hampton, Black Radicalization and Resistance; Tate, ‘“I can't quite put my finger on it”’.
16 Ahmed, ‘The non-performativity of anti-racism’, p. 111.
17 Back, ‘Ivory towers?’, p. 4.
18 hampton, Black Radicalization and Resistance.
19 Esther Stanford-Xosei, ‘Universities and reparative justice’, INOSAAR Roundtable (2020), available at: www.facebook.com/INOSAAR/videos/3222009504575075 [accessed 7 June 2021].
20 Webb, ‘Bolt-holes’, p. 108.
21 Rodney, Walter Rodney Speaks, p. 113.
22 Castle and McDonald, ‘Intellectual activism and public engagement’; Cann and DeMeulenaere, The Activist Academic; Lennox and Yildiz, ‘Activist scholarship in human rights’; Sudbury and Okazawa-Rey, ‘Activist scholarship and the neoliberal university’.
23 William V. D’Antonio, ‘Academic man: Scholar or activist?’, Sociological Focus, 2:4 (1969), 1–25, p. 16.
24 Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed.
25 Mary Breuing, ‘Problematizing critical pedagogy’, International Journal of Critical Pedagogy, 3:3 (2011), 2–23.
26 H. James Garrett, Learning to be in the World with Others: Difficult Knowledge and Social Studies Education (New York: Peter Lang, 2017).
27 Henry Giroux, On Critical Pedagogy (London: Bloomsbury, 2020); bell hooks, Teaching Community: A Pedagogy of Hope (London: Routledge, 2003); Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed.
28 Cann and DeMeulenaere, The Activist Academic, p. 92; also see Ricky L. Allen, ‘The race problem in the critical pedagogy community’, in Reinventing Critical Pedagogy, ed. by César A. Rossatto, Ricky L. Allen, and Marc Pruyn (Plymouth: Rowman & Littlefield, 2006), 3–20.
29 Cann and DeMeulenaere, The Activist Academic, p. 92; also see Marvin Lynn, Michael E. Jennings, and Sherick Hughes, ‘Critical race pedagogy 2.0: Lessons from Derrick Bell’, Race Ethnicity and Education, 16:4 (2013), 603–628; Daniel G. Solórzano and Tara J. Yosso, ‘Toward a critical race theory of Chicana and Chicano education’, in Charting New Terrains of Chicana(o)/Latina(o) Education, ed. by Carlos Tejada, Corinne Martinez, and Zeus Leonardo (Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press, 2000), 35–65.
30 Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed.
31 Henry Giroux and Peter McLaren, ‘Radical pedagogy as cultural politics: Beyond the discourse of critique and anti-utopianism’, in Theory/Pedagogy/Politics: Texts for Change, ed. by Donald E. Morton and Mas’ud Zavarzadeh (Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1991), 152–186, p. 160.
32 Ibid.; Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed; Lynn, Jennings, and Hughes, ‘Critical race pedagogy’; Peter Mayo, Hegemony and Education Under Neoliberalism: Insights from Gramsci (London: Routledge, 2016); Peter Mayo, Higher Education in a Globalising World: Community Engagement and Lifelong Learning (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2019).
33 Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed.
34 Rodney, Walter Rodney Speaks.
35 Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed, p. 35.
36 Alexis Jemal, ‘Critical consciousness: A critique and critical analysis of the literature’, Urban Review, 49:4 (2017), 602–626.
37 Collins, Black Feminist Thought.
38 Cann and DeMeulenaere, The Activist Academic, p. 96.
39 Rodney, Walter Rodney Speaks, p. 113.
40 Gerardo del Cerro Santamaría, ‘Challenges and drawbacks in the marketisation of higher education within neoliberalism’, Review of European Studies, 12:1 (2020), 22–38; Rille Raaper and Mark Olssen, ‘Mark Olssen on neoliberalisation of higher education and academic lives: An interview’, Policy Futures in Education, 14:2 (2015), 147–163; Pat Young, ‘Out of balance: Lecturers’ perceptions of differential status and rewards in relation to teaching and research’, Teaching in Higher Education, 11:2 (2006), 191–202.
41 Feldman and Sandoval, ‘Metric power and the academic self’.
42 Sanders-McDonagh and Davis, ‘Resisting neoliberal policies’.
43 Henry Giroux, ‘The curse of totalitarianism and the challenge of critical pedagogy’, Philosophers for Change, 13 October 2015, available at: https://philosophersforchange.org/2015/10/13/the-curse-of-totalitarianism-and-the-challenge-of-critical-pedagogy/ [accessed 7 June 2021], unpag.
44 In the UK, key ‘student-centred’ (or consumer-centred) performance metrics include the National Student Survey and the Teaching Excellence Framework. For a critique of metrics, see Stephen J. Ball and Antonio Olmedo, ‘Care of the self, resistance and subjectivity under neoliberal governmentalities’, Critical Studies in Education, 54:1 (2013), 85–96; Sanders-McDonagh and Davis, ‘Resisting neoliberal policies’.
45 Webb, ‘Bolt-holes’, p. 100.
46 Laura Connelly and Remi Joseph-Salisbury, ‘Teaching Grenfell: The role of emotion in teaching and learning for social change’, Sociology, 53:6 (2019), 1026–1042.
47 For a discussion of the tower block fire which caused seventy-two deaths and numerous injuries, see Dan Bulley, Jenny Edkins, and Nadine El-Enany, After Grenfell: Violence, Resistance and Response (London: Pluto Press, 2019); Remi Joseph-Salisbury and Laura Connelly, ‘Grenfell was the result of a campaign of racial terror’, Novara Media, 17 June 2018, available at: https://novaramedia.com/2018/06/17/grenfell-one-year-on-an-unatoned-act-of-racial-terror/ [accessed 7 June 2021].
48 Connelly and Joseph-Salisbury, ‘Teaching Grenfell’, p. 1037.
49 Sarah Finn, ‘Writing for social action: Affect, activism, and the composition classroom’. PhD thesis, University of Massachusetts, 2013, available at: https://scholarworks.umass.edu/open_access_dissertations/791/ [accessed 11 June 2021].
50 Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed.
51 Kelley, Freedom Dreams.
52 Heather W. Hackman, ‘Five essential components for social justice education’, Excellence and Equity in Education, 38:2 (2005), 103–109, p. 103; also see hooks, Teaching Community.
53 Stanley Aronowitz and Henry Giroux, Education Under Siege (South Hadley, MA: Bergin and Garvey, 1985), p. 37.
54 Castle and McDonald, ‘Intellectual activism and public engagement’, p. 130.
55 Rodney, Walter Rodney Speaks, p. 113.
56 Collins, On Intellectual Activism, p. 153.
57 Harney and Moten, The Undercommons.
58 Webb, ‘Bolt-holes’, p. 100.
59 Ball and Olmedo, ‘Care of the self, resistance and subjectivity’; Sanders-McDonagh and Davis, ‘Resisting neoliberal policies’.
60 Webb, ‘Bolt-holes’, p. 100.
61 The ‘flipped classroom’ describes an approach to teaching that purportedly attempts to decentre the ‘teacher’, and requires students to complete reading and preparations before entering the classroom in order to increase student engagement and participation. There is evidence to suggest, however, that the flipped classroom is driven by neoliberalisation and profit interests, and ‘offers no additional benefits to student learning over a nonflipped, active-learning approach’; see Jamie Jensen, Tyler Kummer, and Patricia Godoy, ‘Improvements from a flipped classroom may simply be the fruits of active learning’, CBE—Life Sciences Education, 14:1 (2015), ar5–ar12; Matthew Evans, ‘Navigating the neoliberal university: Reflecting on teaching practice as a teacher-researcher-trade unionist’, British Journal of Sociology of Education, 41:2 (2020), 574–590.
62 Sara Ahmed, The Cultural Politics of Emotion (London: Routledge, 2004), p. 3; also see Audrey Bryan, ‘The sociology classroom as a pedagogical site of discomfort: Difficult knowledge and the emotional dynamics of teaching and learning’, Irish Journal of Sociology, 24:1 (2016), 7–33.
63 Connelly and Joseph-Salisbury, ‘Teaching Grenfell’; Dan Bousfield, Heather L. Johnson, and Jean M. Montison, ‘Racialized hearts and minds: Emotional labor and affective leadership in the teaching/learning of IR’, International Studies Perspectives, 20:2 (2019), 170–187.
64 Ahmed, The Cultural Politics of Emotion.
65 Megan Boler and Michalinos Zembylas, ‘Discomforting truths: The emotional terrain of understanding differences’, in Pedagogies of Difference: Rethinking Education for Social Justice, ed. by Peter P. Trifonas (New York: Routledge, 2003), 110–136; Michalinos Zembylas, ‘Pedagogy of discomfort and its ethical implications: The tensions of ethical violence in social justice education’, Ethics and Education, 10:2 (2015), 163–174.
66 See note 34 of the Introduction for a description of Prevent.
67 Joseph-Salisbury et al., ‘Race and ethnicity in British sociology’.
68 Martin Oppenheimer and George Lakey, A Manual For Direct Action: Strategy and Tactics for Civil Rights and All Other Nonviolent Protest Movements (Chicago, IL: Quadrangle Books, 1965); Joshua K. Russell, ‘Blockade’, in Beautiful Trouble: A Toolbox for Revolution, ed. by Andrew Boyd and Dave O. Mitchell (London: OR Books, 2013), 14–17.
69 Joseph-Salisbury et al., ‘Race and ethnicity in British sociology’.
70 Alexander and Shankley, ‘Ethnic inequalities in the state education system’.
71 Mirrlees and Alvi, EdTech Inc.
72 Ibid., p. 5.
73 Webb, ‘Bolt-holes’, p. 102.
74 Collins, On Intellectual Activism, p. 129.
75 Henry Giroux, Theory and Resistance in Education: Towards a Pedagogy for the Opposition (London: Bergin and Garvey, 2001), p. xxvi.
76 Joseph-Salisbury et al., ‘Race and ethnicity in British sociology’.
77 Gilmore, ‘Public enemies and private intellectuals’, p. 71.
78 hampton, Black Radicalization and Resistance, p. 139.
79 Ibid., p. 142.
80 Webb, ‘Bolt-holes’.
81 Ahmed, On Being Included.
82 Azeezat Johnson and Remi Joseph-Salisbury, ‘“Are you supposed to be in here?” Racial microaggressions and knowledge production in higher education’, in Dismantling Race in Higher Education, ed. by Jason Arday and Heidi Safia Mirza (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018), 143–160.
83 hampton, Black Radicalization and Resistance, p. 146.
84 An example here would be the role that Suhraiya Jivraj and Dave Thomas, as well as Sheree Palmer, played in supporting Decolonise UKC at the University of Kent, UK; see Decolonise UKC, available at: https://decoloniseukc.org/ [accessed 7 June 2021] and Decolonise University of Kent Collective, Towards Decolonising the University: A Kaleidoscope for Empowered Action, ed. by Dave Thomas and Suhraiya Jivraj (Oxford: Counter Press, 2020).
85 Ahmed, Feminist Life, p. 37.
86 Collins, On Intellectual Activism, p. 38.
87 In Janice M. McCabe, ‘Activism and the academy’, Contexts, 17:3 (2018), 10–11.
88 Collins, On Intellectual Activism, p. 38.
89 Mumia Abu-Jamal, ‘Intellectuals and the gallows’, in Imprisoned Intellectuals: Political Prisoners Write on Life, Liberation and Rebellion, ed. by Joy James (New York: Rowman & Littlefield, 2003), 179–189, p. 179.
90 Heidi Safia Mirza, ‘Racism in higher education’, p. 11.
91 Harney and Moten, The Undercommons; Webb, ‘Bolt-holes’.
92 Virasami, How to Change it; hampton, Black Radicalization and Resistance.
93 Kelley, Freedom Dreams; Bettina L. Love, We Want to Do More Than Survive: Abolitionist Teaching and the Pursuit of Educational Freedom (Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 2020); Virasami, How to Change it.
94 UCU, ‘University staff balloting for pension strikes £240,000 worse off as costs rise and benefits cut’, UCU website, 3 September 2019, available at: www.ucu.org.uk/article/10269/University-staff-balloting-for-pension-strikes-240000-worse-off-as-costs-rise-and-benefits-cut?list=1676 [accessed 7 June 2021].
95 Paul Gilroy, ‘Steppin out of Babylon – race, class and autonomy’, in The Empire Strikes Back, ed. by Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies (London: Hutchinson, 1982), 275–314; Ambalavaner Sivanandan, ‘The liberation of the black intellectual’, Race and Class, 18:4 (1977), 329–343.
96 Satnam Virdee, ‘A Marxist critique of Black Radical theories of trade-union racism’, Sociology, 34:3 (2000), 545–565.
97 Wilf Sullivan, ‘Race and trade unions’, Britain at Work: Voices from the Workplace 1945–1995, London Metropolitan University website, available at: www.unionhistory.info/britainatwork/narrativedisplay.php?type=raceandtradeunions [accessed 7 June 2021].
98 Stephen Ashe, ‘The 2018 university strike, the Tuc's racism at work survey and hegemony in higher education’, The Sociological Review, 28 March 2019, available at: www.thesociologicalreview.com/the-2018-university-strike-the-tucs-racism-at-work-survey-and-hegemony-in-higher-education/ [accessed 7 June 2021]; Stephen Ashe, ‘Why I'm talking to white trade unionists about racism’, Open Democracy, 6 September 2019, available at: www.opendemocracy.net/en/opendemocracyuk/why-im-talking-white-trade-unionists-about-racism/ [accessed 7 June 2021]; Stephen Ashe, Magda Borkowska, and James Nazroo, Racism Ruins Lives: An analysis of the 2016–2017 Trade Union Congress Racism at Work Survey (Manchester: Centre on Dynamics of Ethnicity, 2019).
99 Brenden McGeever, ‘Rethinking collective action: The 2018 university strike’, Discover Society, 1 March 2018, available at: https://discoversociety.org/2018/03/01/rethinking-collective-action-the-2018-university-strike/ [accessed 7 June 2021]; Isabelle Rahman, ‘Report on TUC Black Workers’ Conference 2019’, UCU website, 30 April 2019, available at: www.ucu.org.uk/article/10060/Report-on-TUC-Black-Workers-Conference-2019?list=8182 [accessed 7 June 2021].
100 Harney and Moten, The Undercommons.
101 Tanzil Chowdhury, ‘Temporalities of the neoliberal university and resistance’, Legal Form, 8 September 2020, available at: https://legalform.blog/2020/09/08/temporalities-of-the-neoliberal-university-and-resistance-tanzil-chowdhury/ [accessed 7 June 2021], unpag.
102 Gilmore, ‘Public enemies and private intellectuals’, p. 71.
103 Giroux, Theory and Resistance in Education, p. xxv.
104 Castle and McDonald, ‘Intellectual activism and public engagement’.
105 Malia Bouattia, ‘Pandemic redundancies speak volumes about the real state of progress for women of colour’, The New Arab, 13 November 2020, available at: https://english.alaraby.co.uk/english/comment/2020/11/13/pandemic-redundancies-speak-volumes-about-real-state-of-progress [accessed 7 June 2021].
106 Castle and McDonald, ‘Intellectual activism and public engagement’, p. 130.
107 Madeleine Metcalf, ‘Future of Goldsmiths: Staff and students hold virtual picket’, East London Lines, 7 March 2021, available at: www.eastlondonlines.co.uk/2021/03/future-of-goldsmiths-staff-and-students-join-virtual-picket/ [accessed 7 June 2021].
108 Ashe, ‘The 2018 university strike’; Ashe, ‘Why I'm talking to white trade unionists about racism’; Ashe, Borkowska, and Nazroo, Racism Ruins Lives; UCU, Witness: The Lived Experience of UCU Black Members (London: UCU, 2017).
109 Kelley, Freedom Dreams.
110 Gilmore, ‘Public enemies and private intellectuals’, p. 71.
111 Webb, ‘Bolt-holes’, p. 99.

Chapter 6 – Uncomfortable truths, reflexivity, and a constructive complicity

1 Chandra T. Mohanty, ‘US empire and the project of women's studies: Stories of citizenship, complicity and dissent’, Gender, Place and Culture, 13:1 (2006), 7–20, p. 13.
2 Spivak, Critique of Postcolonial Reason.
3 Ibid.; also see Sara de Jong, ‘Constructive complicity enacted? The reflections of women NGO and IGO workers on their practices’, Journal of Intercultural Studies, 30:4 (2009), 387–402.
4 Back, ‘Ivory towers?’
5 Johnson, ‘An academic witness’; Zeus Leonardo, ‘Through the multicultural glass: Althusser, ideology and race relations in post-civil rights America’, Policy Futures in Education, 3:4 (2005), 400–412.
6 Kelley, Freedom Dreams.
7 Abu-Jamal, ‘Intellectuals and the gallows’, p. 179.
8 Webb, ‘bolt-holes’.
9 Elliot Murphy, Arms in Academia: The Political Economy of the Modern UK Defence Industry (London: Routledge, 2020).
10 Maryam Jameela, ‘Academics and police tied together with a £10m fund’, The Canary, 15 January 2021, available at: www.thecanary.co/uk/2021/01/15/academics-and-police-tied-together-with-a-10m-fund/ [accessed 7 June 2021].
11 See note 33 in the Introduction for a brief description of the hostile environment, and note 34 in the Introduction on Prevent.
12 Jason Arday, ‘Understanding racism within the academy: The persistence of racism within higher education’, in The Fire Now: Anti-Racist Scholarship in Times of Explicit Racial Violence, ed. by Azeezat Johnson, Remi Joseph-Salisbury, and Beth Kamunge (London: Zed Books, 2018), 26–37; Rollock, Staying Power; Sian, Navigating Institutional Racism.
13 See note 119 in the Introduction for an explanation of what is meant by the ‘awarding gap’.
14 Sven Beckert, Gill Balraj, Jim Henle, and Katherine Stevens, ‘Harvard and slavery’, Transition, 122 (2017), 201–205; Stephen Mullen and Simon Newman, ‘Slavery, abolition and the University of Glasgow’, University of Glasgow (2018), available at: www.gla.ac.uk/media/Media_607547_smxx.pdf [accessed 7 June 2021]; Lindsey K. Walters, ‘Slavery and the American university: Discourses of retrospective justice at Harvard and Brown’, A Journal of Slave and Post-Slave Studies, 38:4 (2017), 719–744.
15 Mohanty, ‘US empire and the project of women's studies’.
16 De Jong, ‘Constructive complicity enacted?’, p. 391.
17 Beginning in the 1970s, the reflexive turn has transcended disciplinary boundaries to become one of few topics in which a consensus exists; see Douglas Macbeth, ‘On reflexivity in qualitative research: Two readings, and a third’, Qualitative Inquiry, 7:1 (2001), 35–68.
18 Newman, Working the Spaces of Power, p. 130.
19 Ahmed, ‘Declarations of whiteness’, unpag.
20 Spivak, Critique of Postcolonial Reason, pp. 3–4.
21 De Jong, ‘Constructive complicity enacted?’
22 Osuna, ‘Class suicide’.
23 Abu-Jamal, ‘Intellectuals and the gallows’.
24 As we have noted in earlier chapters, capacity to engage in such work is always mediated by a range of factors, including our positionality in relation to structures of inequality (racism, heteropatriarchy, disablism, classism etc.). Our employment status and our standing within our place of work will also have an impact.
25 Abu-Jamal, ‘Intellectuals and the gallows’.
26 Mirza, ‘Racism in higher education’; Sian, Navigating Institutional Racism.
27 Spivak, Critique of Postcolonial Reason, pp. 3–4.
28 Boler and Zembylas, ‘Discomforting truths’; Connelly and Joseph-Salisbury, ‘Teaching Grenfell’.
29 Ahmed, ‘Declarations of whiteness’, unpag.
30 Harney and Moten, The Undercommons.
31 Nayak, Race, Gender and the Activism of Black Feminist Theory, p. 30.
32 Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed, p. 51.
33 Harney and Moten, The Undercommons.
34 Kelley, Freedom Dreams; Lipsitz, ‘What is this black in the Black Radical tradition?’, p. 109; also see Virasami, How to Change it.
35 Such spaces are often based on a radical vision of community, cooperation, and education for liberation. Drawing inspiration from the 1968 Anti-university and the Tent City University of the Occupy Movement, Free University Brighton offers a good example of this kind of work (see freeuniversitybrighton.org). Whilst other examples abound, The Free Black University is a particularly ambitious project (see freeblackuni.com). See Jakobsen for more information on the Anti-university and Walker for more information on Tent City: Jakob Jakobsen, ‘The Anti-university of London’, Libertarian Education, 27 July 2015, available at: www.libed.org.uk/index.php/articles/515-the-antiuniversity-of-london [accessed 7 June 2021]; Peter Walker, ‘Tent City University – one of the most remarkable aspects of Occupy London’, Guardian, 19 January 2012, available at: www.theguardian.com/uk/2012/jan/19/occupy-london-tent-city-university [accessed 7 June 2021].
36 Some examples include the excellent Surviving Society podcasts – hosted by Chantelle Lewis and Tissot Regis, and produced by George Ofori-Addo – which aim to open up sociological knowledge (see soundcloud.com/user-622675754); the Global Social Theory website – a free online resource, organised by Gurminder K. Bhambra, that seeks to move beyond parochial social theory to more global perspectives (see globalsocialtheory.org/); and Connected Sociologies, also directed by Gurminder K. Bhambra, which provides free resources for those interested in decolonising education (see connectedsociologies.org).
37 Though there are many other informal groups, the work of Abolitionist Futures offers a great example here: https://abolitionistfutures.com/reading-groups [accessed 11 June 2021].
38 Mark Coté, Richard Day, and Greig de Peuter, ‘Utopian pedagogy: Creating radical alternatives in the neoliberal age’, The Review of Education, Pedagogy, and Cultural Studies, 29:4 (2007), 317–336.
39 Alexander Vasudeven, The Autonomous City: A History of Urban Squatting (London: Verso, 2017).
40 Kelley, Freedom Dreams; Coté, Day, and de Peuter, ‘Utopian pedagogy’.
41 Pierre Bourdieu, Language and Symbolic Power, ed. by John B. Thompson, and trans. by Gino Raymond and Matthew Adamson (Cambridge: Polity, 1991).
42 Audre Lorde, Sister Outsider: Essays and Speeches (Berkeley, CA: Ten Speed Press, 1984).
43 Paulo Freire, ‘On the right and duty to change the world’, Counterpoints, 422 (2012), 45–52.
44 Mouffe, For a Left Populism, p. 6.
45 In Chapter 1, Dez made this point more explicitly when he warned about intellectual vanguardism. There are clear echoes, in Dez's accounts, of the Black Radical tradition that Osuna traces through Frantz Fanon, Walter Rodney, Amílcar Cabral, and Cedric Robinson. Each of these thinkers emphasises the importance of ‘petit bourgeois intellectuals’ betraying their class interests, in order to work in service to communities of resistance, but are deliberate and explicit in noting that struggle must be led by those at the coalface (the colonised, or formerly colonised, proletariat); see Osuna, ‘Class suicide’.
46 Andrews, Back to Black; Joseph-Salisbury, ‘Institutional whiteness’; Sian, Navigating Institutional Racism.
47 Back, Academic Diary.
48 Alison Mountz, Anne Bonds, Becky Mansfield, Jenna Loyd, Jennifer Hyndman, Margaret Walton-Roberts, Ranu Basu, Rias Whitson, Roberta Hawkins, Trina Hamilton, and Winifred Curran, ‘For slow scholarship: A feminist politics of resistance through collective action in the neoliberal university’, ACME: An International Journal for Critical Geographies, 14:4 (2015), 1235–1259.
49 David W. Orr, ‘Slow knowledge’, Conservation Biology, 10:3 (1996), 699–702.
50 Clennon, ‘Scholar activism as a nexus’.
51 Harney and Moten, The Undercommons.
52 The university is made up of contradictions and competing forces. As such, whilst working under the radar can be necessary and productive, as we have shown elsewhere in this book, there are also (limited and precarious) pockets of opportunity to work in ways that are more visible. In some cases, such work may even be celebrated.
53 See Sojoyner for a discussion of how struggles over time can be a feature of the Black Radical tradition; Damian M. Sojoyner, ‘Dissonance in time: (Un)making and (re)mapping of blackness’, in Futures of Black Radicalism, ed. by. Gaye T. Johnson and A. Lubin (London: Verso, 2017), 59–71.
54 André Gorz, A Strategy for Labor (Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 1967).
55 Angela Y. Davis, Are Prions Obsolete? (New York: Seven Stories Press, 2011 [2002]).
56 Lopes and Dewan, ‘Precarious pedagogies?’; UCU, Precarious work in Higher Education.
57 David Graeber, Bullshit Jobs (London: Simon & Schuster, 2018).
58 Kelley, Freedom Dreams.
59 This raises questions about how we support students in mobilising for free education, and whether such work – as well as building community education alternatives – is a way that we can mitigate our complicity.
60 Matthew Bolton, How to Resist: Turn Protest to Power (London: Bloomsbury, 2017).
61 De Jong, ‘Constructive complicity enacted?’
62 Several of our participants noted that such recognition was often superficial and did not reflect meaningful engagement with the more radical or oppositional aspects of the research, or that such recognition was given at the same time that the institution pursued interests that were directly antithetical to the work that had been recognised for its impact.
63 Bhattacharyya, ‘How can we live with ourselves?’, p. 1424.
64 Ahmed, ‘Declarations of whiteness’, unpag.
65 See note 47 in Chapter 3 for a short description of the Northern Police Monitoring Project.
66 Spivak, Critique of Postcolonial Reason.
67 Mohanty, ‘US empire and the project of women's studies’.
68 Ahmed, ‘Declarations of whiteness’, unpag.
69 Abu-Jamal, ‘Intellectuals and the gallows’.
70 Kelley, Freedom Dreams.

A manifesto for anti-racist scholar-activism

1 Back, Academic Diary, p. 21.
2 Derrick Bell, Faces at the Bottom of the Well (New York: Basic Books, 1992), p. 198.
3 Ruth Wilson Gilmore, ‘Fatal couplings of power and difference: Notes of racism and geography’, The Professional Geographer, 54:1 (2002), 15–25, p. 21.
4 Whilst remembering, as we argued in the book's Introduction, there is more to anti-racism than the inverse of racism.
5 Alana Lentin, ‘Racism in public or public racism: Doing anti-racism in “post-racial” times’, Ethnic and Racial Studies, 39:1 (2016), 33–48; Goldberg, Are We All Postracial Yet?
6 Avery F. Gordon, ‘On “lived theory”: An interview with A. Sivanandan’, Race & Class, 55:4 (2014), 1–7, p. 3.
7 Gargi Bhattacharyya, ‘Gargi Bhattacharyya on racial capitalism’, Our Voices, Open Democracy (2020), available at: www.opendemocracy.net/en/oureconomy/gargi-bhattacharyya-racism-state-sponsored-predilection-early-death/ [accessed 11 June 2021].
8 Angela Y. Davis, Women, Culture and Politics (New York: Vintage Books, 1984), p. 14.
9 Collins, Black Feminist Thought.
10 Gilmore, ‘Public enemies and private intellectuals’, p. 72.
11 Mohanty, ‘US empire and the project of women's studies’.
12 Sivanandan, Communities of Resistance.
13 Bakan, ‘Marxism, feminism, and epistemological dissonance’; Bobel, ‘“I'm not an activist”’.
14 Clennon, ‘Scholar activism as a nexus’.
15 Johnson, ‘An academic witness’; Smith, Decolonizing Methodologies.
16 Reynolds, Block, and Bradley, ‘Food justice scholar-activism’.
17 Virasami, How to Change it; Aziz Choudry, Learning Activism: The Intellectual Life of Contemporary Social Movements (Toronto: Toronto University Press, 2015).
18 Ture, Stokely Speaks, p. 185.
19 Gilmore, ‘Public enemies and private intellectuals’, p. 71.
20 Ahmed, On Being Included; Bhambra, Nişancıoğlu, and Gebrial, ‘Decolonising the university in 2020’; Dar, Dy, and Rodriguez, Is Decolonizing the New Black?
21 Choudry, ‘Reflections on academia, activism’.
22 Davis, Freedom is a Constant Struggle.
23 De Sousa Santos, Epistemologies of the South.
24 Although the similarities and overlaps are significant, these different configurations may reflect different power balances and emphases between activism and scholarship, as well as reflecting the space from which one operates.
25 Ambalavaner Sivanandan, ‘All that melts into air is solid: The hokum of New Times’, Race & Class, 31:3 (1990), 1–30; Sivanandan, ‘Catching history on the wing’; Sivanandan, Communities of Resistance.
26 Osuna, ‘Class suicide’.
27 Collins, On Intellectual Activism.
28 See, for example, Choudry, ‘Reflections on academia, activism’; Clarke, Chadwick, and Williams, ‘Critical social research’; Huerta, ‘Viva the scholar-activist’.
29 We use ‘study’ here in Harney and Moten's sense; see Harney and Moten, The Undercommons.
30 Ibid., p. 26.
31 As Campt puts it, ‘“practicing refusal” names the urgency of rethinking the time, space, and fundamental vocabulary of what constitutes politics, activism, and theory, as well as what it means to refuse the terms given to us to name these struggles’. It may involve, therefore, refusing the institution; see Tina Marie Campt, ‘Black visuality and the practice of refusal’, Women & Performance: A Journal of Feminist Theory, 29:1 (2019), 79–87, p. 80.
32 Kelley, Freedom Dreams.
33 Clarke, Chadwick, and Williams, ‘Critical social research’, p. 261.
34 Derek H. Alderman and Joshua F.J. Inwood, ‘The need for public intellectuals in the Trump era and beyond: Strategies for communication, engagement, and advocacy’, The Professional Geographer, 71:1 (2019), 145–151; Derickson and Routledge, ‘Resourcing scholar-activism’.
35 Julius Lester, ‘James Baldwin: Reflections of a Maverick’, New York Times, 27 May 1984; Phil Scraton, ‘Bearing witness’.
36 Harney and Moten, The Undercommons.
37 Ibid.
38 Rodney, Walter Rodney Speaks.
39 Harney and Moten, The Undercommons, p. 26.
40 la paperson, A Third University.
41 Mullen and Newman, ‘Slavery, abolition and the University of Glasgow’; Walters, ‘Slavery and the American university’.
42 Sian, Navigating Institutional Racism.
43 Noting the ‘long and varied history’ of the struggle for reparations, as well as the need for a ‘multidirectional and multidimensional definition of reparations’, INOSAAR offer a useful definition: ‘Reparations are not simply a long-overdue “pay cheque” but a call for holistic repairs that seek to heal those within the black and Afrikan communities, guarantee the equal participation of all members of the human race (for example, through self-determination), eradicate the effects of Afrikan enslavement and the subsequent histories of colonialism and racial oppression, and find ways to rebuild respectful and egalitarian relations between all communities through the recognition of responsibility for the wrong committed and the harm inflicted’; see INOSAAR, Global Report, p. 14.
44 Harney and Moten, The Undercommons.
45 INOSAAR, Global Report.
46 Rodney, Walter Rodney Speaks, p. 113.
47 Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed; hooks, Teaching to Transgress; hooks, Teaching Community; Giroux, ‘The curse of totalitarianism’; Giroux, On Critical Pedagogy.
48 Webb, ‘Bolt-holes’.
49 Karl Marx, ‘Theses on Feuerbach’, Marx/Engles Internet Archive, available at: www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1845/theses/theses.htm [accessed 7 June 2021].
50 As discussed in Chapter 5, we offer the concept of the classroom-to-activism pipeline to refer to the ways in which we can set up our classrooms, and our pedagogical praxis, to encourage and enable students to engage in activism beyond the classroom – that is, the task of ensuring our teaching is nurturing future and emerging anti-racist scholar-activists.
51 Feldman and Sandoval, ‘Metric power and the academic self’.
52 Antonia Darder, ‘Imagining justice in a culture of terror: Pedagogy, politics, and dissent’, in Critical Pedagogy in Uncertain Times, ed. by Sheila Macrine (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009), p. 151–166.
53 Choudry, ‘Reflections on academia, activism’; hampton, Black Racialization and Resistance.
54 Virasami, How to Change it.
55 Cann and DeMeulenaere, The Activist Academic, p. 35.
56 Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed.
57 Ahmed, ‘Declarations of whiteness’, unpag; also see Azeezat Johnson, ‘Throwing our bodies against the white background of academia’, AREA: Ethics in/of Geographical Research, 52:1 (2020), 89–96.
58 Joseph-Salisbury, ‘Confronting my duty’, p. 52.
59 Cornel West, ‘The betrayal of the black elite, The Real News, available at: www.youtube.com/watch?v=CA7NA2TgXBQ [accessed 7 June 2021], unpag.
60 Cann and DeMeulenaere, The Activist Academic, p. 13.
61 Campt, ‘Black visuality’.
62 Kelley, Freedom Dreams.
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