Index
in The new politics of Russia

Index

Notes are indicated by the letter n. appearing after the page number, followed by the note number. For example 87n.11 refers to note number 11 on page 87.
Abkhazia 3, 74
Afghanistan 2021, 66, 76
Agency for Strategic Initiatives (ASI) 108109, 112, 139, 143n.42
All-Russian Popular Front (ONF) 17, 105, 108109, 112, 132, 139
analogies see historical analogies
Anisimov, Alexei 137
Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty 68
anti-Orange demonstrations 106
Arab Spring protest movements, understanding 20, 48, 7273, 82
area studies approach 35, 52, 150151
arms control regime, Euro-Atlantic community 71
ASI see Agency for Strategic Initiatives (ASI)
authoritarian political model 125
Averyanov, Yuri 136
Beslan terrorist attack 69
Bocharov, Andrei 107, 137
Brechalov, Alexander 136137
Brezhnev, Leonid, Putin compared to 47
Brychova, Larisa 136
bureaucratic system, Putin’s problems with 113
CFE see Treaty on Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE)
Chechens 4142, 7980
Cherkesov, Viktor 129
Chubais, Anatoliy 126, 128, 135
Chuichenko, Konstantin 136
Civic Platform party 112, 115
‘clans’ in political landscape 125127
Clinton, Hillary 11, 82
Cold War
linguistic divergences 10
‘new’ 67, 47, 70, 71, 82
Russia as victor 61
shadow of the 69
strategic dissonance post- 6066
collective leadership team 125131
concerns 85
Colour Revolutions 36, 69
Committee of State Security (KGB), conspiracy theories 4142
common histories, different approaches 6162, 145146
common interests and threats, not shared 7582
Communist Party (KPRF) 9697, 113115
Communists of Russia party 113, 115, 121n.70
conceptual gaps, between the West and Russia 12, 7, 89, 1819
conspiracy theories 4142
cooperation with the West
compounding dissonance 6771
counter-terrorism 66, 7880, 146
cyber security 8081
hindered by divergent understanding 7576
importance 1, 63, 6466
and NATO 17, 6467
suspension 84, 85
Cooperative Airspace Initiative (CAI) 66
Coordination Council (CC) 102, 114, 118n.33
corruption
parliamentary elections 102103
public frustration 9192, 9495
Council of Europe 64, 84
counter-terrorism 11, 66, 7880, 146
Crimea
annexation 8, 14, 26, 27, 47
strategic dissonance 84
cyber security 8081
deception, deliberate 27
decision-making, in Russia 41, 122, 123, 125, 138139
de-democratisation 37, 125
defence, divergent understanding 1011
democracy
progress towards 1416, 3537, 3840, 147
roll-back of 37, 69
transition towards 20, 3539, 4951
détente, divergent understanding of 10
deterrence, divergent understanding of 1011
dissonance see language: dissonance; strategic dissonance
Dmitrieva, Oksana 115
domestic politics
accusations of Western influence 82
Putinology 1718, 4446, 122124, 152
reset 103111
Western belief in change 17
Western sense of surprise 2627 see also political landscape
‘dual state’ political model 125
economic sanctions 56, 26, 70, 8485, 93, 124
elections see parliamentary elections
‘end of history’ argument
new confidence in 33
optimism of 1314, 29, 4950, 147
post-Cold War 60
energy supplies, to Europe 70
espionage scandals 71
ethnocentrism 16, 4950, 152
Euro-Atlantic countries
cyber security 81
Russia expertise and experience 3031
Russian as one of 6365
security 1, 18, 71, 73, 7577, 8586
values gap 86 see also West
European Union (EU)
Russia’s relationship with 64, 67, 71, 75
security strategy 7678
expertise
decline in Russia 2933
lack of Russia 147148
need for Russia 5152, 151
shortage of Russia 4849
Federal Security Service (FSB) 4142
firings of senior figures 128131
forecasting failure 5051
Foreign Policy Concept (2013) 8182
Four Common Spaces 64
G8 (Group of Eight) 64, 70, 84
Galushka, Alexander 136
Gazprom
dispute with Naftogaz Ukraini 70, 71
Medvedev’s senior position 43, 133
Georgia 71, 7375
glasnost 7
global financial crisis (2008) 72
Gorbachev, Mikhail 7, 34, 50
government agencies, limited Russia commentators 3233
Govorukhin, Stanislav 105
Govorun, Oleg 130
Gref, German 126, 134
Gromov, Alexei 136
Gryzlov, Boris 104, 130
historical analogies
frequent use of 50
in mainstream Western discussion 4648
in Soviet studies 34
history
different approaches 6162, 145146
dissonance 1316
‘hybrid’ warfare 83
indivisibility of security, Russian view 75, 7778
international affairs
conceptual gap in interpretation 12
disagreements 6768, 87n.18
Russia active in 26, 84
Russia as indispensable partner 61
international terrorism see counter-terrorism
internet protest 98
Iran 70
Iraq 2021, 68
Ishaev, Viktor 130
Ivanov, Sergei 68, 104, 126, 133
Just Russia (JR) party 97, 115
Kaliningrad, protest demonstrations 98, 100
KGB (Committee of State Security), conspiracy theories 4142
Khloponin, Alexander 126127, 135, 143n.41
Kobylkin, Dmitri 137
Kozak, Dmitri 126, 134
KPRF see Communist Party (KPRF)
Kremlinology
approach to Soviet studies 35, 150
decision-making 41
as hearsay, gossip and rumour 50
Putinology as form of 44
‘Kremlin propaganda’ 151
‘Kremlin Towers’ model of Russian leadership 126
‘krugovaya poruka’ (collective leadership) 131
Kudrin, Alexei 44, 99, 107, 126, 129130, 133
language
dissonance 912, 1819, 23n.26, 8081
inflation and imprecision 40, 50
Lavrov, Sergei
on indivisibility of security 77
key political figure 126, 127, 139
presented with souvenir ‘reset’ button 1112
on Russia’s role in history 14
on West’s relations with Russia 62
leadership team
beyond Putin 138139
collective 125131
consolidation of power 111115
hindering progress 15
key figures 126127
newer generation 136138
political landscape 133
reset in response to opposition 106111, 136138
response to demonstrations 103106
League of Voters 106
legislation, reset 103104, 109
liberalism
balance of power 125, 127
belief in victory of 13
false delineation 1516
opposition parties 96, 101, 106, 107110, 112, 115
perceived in protest demonstrations 9293
perceived of Medvedev 5, 37, 4244
Western hopes for 3739
Libya 5, 62, 7273, 80
Litvinenko, Alexander 42, 69
Lukyanov, Evgeniy 136
managers in political leadership 135136
Marr, Andrew 38
media, lack of Russia expertise 3233
Medvedev, Dmitri
approach to terrorists 7980
career 133
compared with Gorbachev 50
disappointment in 5
on European ideology 67
job switch with Putin 94
key political figure 126
liberalism 37
and Libya 62
relations with Putin 4244
on Russia’s role in international affairs 61
vertical of power 132
Melnikov, Ivan 114
middle class, rise of 10, 1415, 17, 38, 91, 9293
military doctrine (2010), Russian 12
Mironov, Sergei 103, 127
mirror-imaging 39, 48, 4950, 52
missile defence, misinterpretation by both USA and Russia 85
Molotov-Ribentrop Pact 14
Moscow
political parties 96
protest demonstrations 99100
Naftogaz Ukraini, dispute with Gazprom 70, 71
Naryshkin, Sergei 104, 107, 126
NATO see North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO)
NATO-Russia Council (NRC) 5, 6467, 74, 7576, 84
Navalniy, Alexei 40, 92, 94, 101102, 103, 114
Nazi analogies 47
Nemtsov, Boris 42, 102, 122123
neo-Kremlinology 122123
networks, political 125127
‘new Cold War’ 67, 47, 70, 71, 82
Nikitin, Andrey 136
non-governmental organisations (NGOs), legislation 69, 103104
North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO)
build-up of 84
as danger to Russia 12
enlargement 89, 62, 68, 7678
Russian distrust 62, 7678
Russia’s cooperation with 6466, 67
Russia’s relationship with 71, 7475
Warsaw summit July 2016 146 see also NATO-Russia Council (NRC)
Novosibirsk, protest demonstrations 100
numerical inflation and imprecision, protest demonstrations 40, 99100
Nurgaliev, Rashid 130
Obama, President 5, 14, 43
ONF see All-Russian Popular Front (ONF)
online protest 98
opposition
to Putin 1415, 112115
Western praise of 1516
optimism
at ending of Cold War 78, 6061
of ‘end of history’ era 1314, 29, 4950, 147
for Russia joining West 45, 20, 3233, 60, 93, 152
Orange Revolution 47, 48, 69
Organization for Security and Cooperation (OSCE) 2728, 64, 77, 84
parliamentary elections
addressing of problems 106, 111
corruption 102103
decline of United Russia party 9495
fraudulent 9192
shift to the left 9697, 113114
understanding 112
PARNAS party 101102, 117n.29
Partnership and Cooperation Agreement 1994 64
Patrushev, Nikolai 123, 126, 133, 139
peace, divergent understanding 10
pensioner protests 9899
perestroika 7, 35
Permanent Partnership Councils (PPCs) 6465
Peskov, Dmitri 47, 129130
pessimists 32
‘Planets’ model of Russian leadership 126
Poland 31
‘Politburo 2.0’ model of Russian leadership 126
political landscape
collective leadership team 125131
reset 136138
vertical of power 131136
Western understanding of Russia 150 see also domestic politics
political left, shift to 9697, 113114
political models, Russian leadership 125126
political opposition 1416, 112115
political science, approach to Soviet studies 3536
Politkovskaya, Anna 69
povstanets 79
power
building a vertical of 131136
end of Putin’s 122124
future 136138
in the political landscape 125131
in Russia beyond Putin 138139
Pravoe Delo party 107108, 112
prioritisation of Russia, lack of 12, 2833
Professionals Party 115
progress towards democracy
idea of 3537, 147
interpretation of history as 1416
limits on understanding Russia 3840
Prokhorov, Mikhail 103, 108, 112, 115
Prokopenko, Timur 138
protest demonstrations
diversity of protesters 101102
history of 9799
and hopes for democracy 3738
imagery of the Orange Revolution 47
leadership responses 103104
numbers in 40, 56n.52, 99100, 114115
and Putin’s popularity 8485
rise and decline (2011 and 2012) 99103
and ‘soft power’ 82
viewed by West as watershed 9193
protests, social 112113
psychology, and ‘Putinology’ 45
public policy bodies, limited Russia expertise 3233
Putin, Vladimir
on Alexei Kudrin 99
authoritarian repression 92
autism 45, 58n.69, 123
on collapse of USSR 6
collective leadership team 125131
conspiracy theories 42
disappearance 42, 4546, 123
on Euro-Atlantic countries 86
focus on 122124
historical comparisons 47
leadership team 133, 138139
on mistrust of NATO 62
opposition 1415, 112115
political campaign 104106
popularity 8485, 95, 109, 111, 113, 138
presidential election 2012 103
psychology 45
relations with Medvedev 4244, 94
roll-back of democracy 69
and Russian view of history 14
third presidential term 56, 3840
on US-led invasion of Iraq 68
vertical of power 131136
website 105
Western view of 56, 149
Putinology 1718, 4446, 122124
reflexive transitionology see transitionology
regime change 68, 124, 148
resets
difficulty following Ukraine war 85
in domestic politics 103111, 112, 136138
with Europe and USA 66, 71, 72
problems with translation 1112
through belief in Medvedev 37
resignations of senior figures 128131
Road Maps 64, 67
Rogozin, Dmitry 105, 128
Rome Declaration (2002) 5
rotation of political leadership 128130, 132, 139
Rotenberg, Arkady 126, 134
RPR-PARNAS party 102, 114
Rudnev, Maxim 137138
Russia and Eurasia studies 2931, 34
Russia expertise and experience
decline in 2933, 147148
need for 5152, 151
shortage 4849
Russo-Georgia War (2008) 2728, 71, 7375
sanctions 56, 26, 8485, 93, 124
Sechin, Igor 107, 109, 126, 134135
security
cyber 8081
Euro-Atlantic countries 1, 18, 71, 73, 7577, 8586
indivisibility of 75, 7778
Serdyukov, Anatoliy 127, 129
Shoigu, Sergei 107, 126, 127128
Shuvalov, Igor 107108, 126
‘signal and the noise’
described 52n.7
difficulties in distinguishing 27
noise only 4148
siloviki (security, intelligence, military and interior) 18, 125, 127
Sobyanin, Sergey 126, 135
social sciences approach to Soviet studies 3536
soft power 8182, 84
‘Solar system’ model of Russian leadership 126
South Ossetia 3, 73, 74
Sovietology 3435
Soviet studies 3436, 150
unlearnt lessons 4852
spies, Russian 71
Stand-off Detection of Explosives and Suicide Bombers (STANDEX) 66
Stolypin, Pyotr, model for Putin 47
St Petersburg 95, 98, 100
strategic dissonance
‘common’ but not ‘shared’ agenda 7582
compounding of 6771
Crimea crisis and war in Ukraine 8286
deepening intensity 7275
post-Cold War 6066
strategic partnership, failing 63, 67, 70, 71, 75, 85, 86
strategy implementers of political leadership 106107, 112, 134135
Surkov, Vladislav 6, 108, 126, 129130
surprise
Crimea annexation 146
lack of expertise 4852
lack of prioritisation of Russia 2933
rise of transitionology 3340
rude awakenings 2629
Russian involvement in Syria 146
Western sense of 3, 16
Syria 5, 14, 26, 7273, 80, 146
Tefft, John 31, 53n.20
terminology
divergent understanding of 7578, 80, 8182
gaps in 912
terrorism see counter-terrorism
think tanks, lack of Russia expertise 32
threat
NATO as a 12
Russia as a 2, 145
Title VIII programme 30
Tomsk 100
transitionology
clarification of 19
influence of 16
limits of 5051
perception of inevitability 9193
protest demonstrations 97103
and Putinology 4446
and Putin v. Medvedev 4244
reflexive 17
‘resetting’ Russian domestic politics 103111
rise of 3340
rise of political left 9495
shift to the left 9697
towards a consolidation of power 111115
translation, differences 11, 23n.26
Treaty on Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) 6, 12, 68, 70, 73
Trutnev, Yuri 107, 126, 134
Udaltsov, Sergei 101, 103
Ufa 100
Ukraine
Orange Revolution 69
war in 2, 58, 26, 28, 31, 8286, 145146
Union of Right Forces 37
United Kingdom
decline in Russia expertise 3031
Russia relationship 69
United Russia (UR) party 9192, 9497, 104109, 111112, 128
United States of America
resets 66, 71, 85
Russia as threat to 2
Russia expertise and experience 3032
Russia relationship 75 see also West UR see United Russia (UR)
‘USSR 2.0' 6
Vaino, Anton 136
values gap 85, 86
vertical of power 39, 45, 113, 131136
Vigilant Skies 66
Vladivostok 98, 100
Volgograd, terrorist attacks 42
Volodin, Vyacheslav 104, 105, 107, 126, 131, 137
Voronova, Tatiana 137138
West
cooperation see cooperation with the West
relationship with Russia ‘common’ but not ‘shared’ agenda 7578
compounding of 6771
conceptual gaps 12, 79, 1819
different approaches to common histories 6163
different conclusions 7275
European security 7678
international affairs 26
understanding of Russia
clarification 19
clichés and stereotypes 36
exchanges of opinion 51
flawed and distorted 1621
ideological 3839
interpretation 2728
linguistic dissonance 912, 1819, 23n.26, 8081
post-Cold War 69, 6063
problems with 36, 145152
protest demonstrations 9193
Putinology 1718, 4446, 122124, 152
speculation and insinuation 4148
state of surprise 3, 2829, 4852
support for liberal opposition 37
Western interventionism 68, 77, 82, 84
World Trade Organization (WTO), Russia entry into 66
‘wrong side of history,' Russia on 1314
Yabloko party 37, 96, 106
Yakunin, Vladimir 139
Yeltsin, Boris 5
Zhirinovsky, Vladimir 103, 128
Zolotov, Viktor 122, 123, 126
Zubkov, Viktor 107
Zyuganov, Gennadiy 103, 105, 113, 127, 128, 138

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The new politics of Russia

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