This chapter focuses on the entrepreneur Jean Hoeufft who remitted subsidies
not only to the United Provinces and Sweden but also to many of France’s
other allies during most of the Thirty Years’ War, including Hesse-Cassel
and Transylvania. It deals with Hoeufft’s role as the organizer of subsidy
payments from the king of France to his allies and argues that French
foreign policy would not have functioned without him. Hoeufft came to occupy
a quasi-diplomatic status, possessing commissions of different sorts from
France, Sweden, and the United Provinces. The chapter details the different
structure of the payments, detailing how the French paid much more to remit
the Swedish subsidies than the Dutch ones. Hoeufft’s credit came to be
viewed as necessary to the alliance, enabling him to secure payment from the
notoriously unreliable French. For Hoeufft, the Cardinals’ foreign policy,
and particularly the payment of subsidies, enabled his entrepreneurial
strategy, allowing his family to profit from occupying a unique position in
European commerce and politics while advancing the Calvinist cause.
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