In his State of the Union address of 1941, Roosevelt suggested that all the people of the world should enjoy four fundamental freedoms: freedom of speech, freedom of worship, freedom from want and freedom from fear.
The Dumbarton Oaks Conference took place in Washington, D.C., from August to October 1944. Delegations from the US, the UK, the Soviet Union and China gathered to discuss plans for a post-war international organisation. The United Nations then came into existence in October 1945, when 51 countries ratified its charter in San Francisco.
In The Great Transformation, Karl Polanyi refers to a double movement that occurs in the development of the ‘Market Society’: marketisation is followed by popular attempts to secure greater social protection (Polanyi, 1957).
Contrary to cosmopolitan hopes and expectations, globalisation itself has wrenched forth the forces of nationalism.
Anand, S. and Segal, P. (2014), ‘The Global Distribution of Income’, in Atkinson, A. and Bourguignon, F. (eds), Handbook of Income Distribution, Volume 2A (Amsterdam: North-Holland), pp. 937–79.
Fiori, J. (2018), ‘Humanitarian Wars and the Struggle for Ethical Order’, Medium, https://medium.com/@julianofiori/humanitarian-wars-and-the-struggle-for-ethical-order-bafd382bf48f, first published online 31 July 2018.
Fiori, J., Espada, F., Field, J. and Dicker, S. (2016), The Echo Chamber: Results, Management and the Humanitarian Affairs Agenda (London: Humanitarian Affairs Team & Humanitarian and Conflict Response Institute).
White House (2017), National Security Strategy of the United States of America, https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/NSS-Final-12-18-2017-0905.pdf, first published online 18 December 2017.