The Nigerian Civil War (1967–70) is commonly seen as the birth scene of MSF. Although some of its founding members were involved as humanitarian workers during the war, MSF was only born in 1971. See Desgrandchamps et al. (2020) for a fuller discussion in this journal.
MSF (2001), Voices from the Silence: People’s Narratives of Their Lives in Angola, www.msf.fr/sites/default/files/2001-04-12-MSF.pdf (accessed 26 December 2020).
The ‘March on Cambodia’ was a public campaign organized by MSF, Action Against Hunger, and the International Rescue Committee to force the Vietnamese army to let humanitarian relief be distributed in Cambodia. On 6 February 1980, about 150 celebrities, journalists, intellectuals, and relief workers, including MSF’s president Claude Malhuret, marched on the Cambodian borders to try to persuade the Vietnamese (see Davey, 2015).
MSF (2005), The Crushing Burden of Rape: Sexual Violence in Darfur, www.msf.org/crushing-burden-rape-sexual-violence-darfur (accessed 26 December 2020).
PHR is a US-based human rights NGO which combines medicine, science, and advocacy to promote medical ethics, and investigate and document human rights violations. They collaborated with MSF (and denounced for example the suspension of MSF from Rakhine State in April 2014) and shared the 1997 Nobel Peace Prize with other human rights NGOs for their role in the International Campaign to Ban Landmines. See their website: https://phr.org/ (accessed 22 May 2021).
In 2019, MSF managed to resume its activities in Myanmar after months of negotiation with the government. See the data in the 2019 International Activity Report: www.msf.org/international-activity-report-2019/myanmar (accessed 26 December 2020).
Omran Daqneesh is a Syrian boy, whose video circulated in August 2016. It raised similar international outrage as in the case of Alan Kurdi, the three-year old Syrian boy pictured dead on a beach in September 2015.
See the whole investigation and its results on Forensic Architecture’s website: https://forensic-architecture.org/investigation/airstrikes-on-al-hamidiah-hospital (accessed 26 December 2020).
The campaign was launched after the US attack on the Kunduz Trauma Center (Afghanistan), operated by MSF, on 3 October 2015. See the online platform: http://notatarget.msf.org/ (accessed 26 December 2020).
On 3 October 2016, MSF-CH used the face of the Geneva City Hospital to screen the simulation of an attack. See the video: www.youtube.com/watch?v=JvjP7EWvK88 (accessed 26 December 2020).
MSF’s president Joanne Liu and ICRC’s president Peter Maurer gave a briefing at the UN Security Council on 28 September 2016 to address the protection of civilians and healthcare in armed conflicts.
The #NotATarget is now a broader campaign launched by the UN for the World Humanitarian Day on 19 August 2017.
Group of Friends of 2286 is an informal group on the Protection of Civilians, created after the adoption of the Security Council resolution 2286 in May 2016, which condemns the attacks against medical units and personnel in armed conflicts.
The GCSP is a think tank that promotes dialogue and education to support peacebuilding and security. See their website: www.gcsp.ch/ (accessed 26 December 2020).
See the CHA’s webinars: www.chaberlin.org/en/event/the-triple-nexus-threat-or-opportunity-for-humanitarian-principles/ (accessed 26 December 2020).
Davey, E. (2015), Idealism beyond Borders: The French Revolutionary Left and the Rise of Humanitarianism, 1954–1988 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
Desgrandchamps, M.-L., Heerten, L., Oko Omaka, A., O’Sullivan, K., and Taithe, B. (2020), ‘ Biafra, Humanitarian Intervention and History’, Journal of Humanitarian Affairs, 2: 2, 66–78.
Dolan, C. (1992), ‘British Development NGOs and Advocacy in the 1990s’, in Edwards, M. and Hulme, D. (eds), Making a Difference: NGOs and Development in a Changing World (London: Earthscan), pp. 203–10.
Edwards, M. (1993), ‘ Does the Doormat Influence the Boot? Critical Thoughts on UK NGOs and International Advocacy’, Development in Practice, 3: 3, 163–75.
Gorin, V. (2018), ‘Advocacy Strategies of Western Humanitarian NGOs from the 1960s to the 1990s’, in Paulmann, J. (ed.), Humanitarianism and Media: 1900 to the Present (New York: Berghahn Books), pp. 201–21.